Agricultural production index

Agricultural production indices are calculated by the Laspeyres formula based on the sum of price-weighted quantities of different agricultural commodities produced. The commodities covered in the computation of indices of agricultural production are all crops and livestock products originating in each country. Practically all products are covered, with the main exception of fodder crops. Production quantities of each commodity are weighted by the average international commodity prices in the base period and summed for each year. To obtain the index, the aggregate for a given year is divided by the average aggregate for the base period 2004-2006. Indices are calculated without any deductions for feed and seed and are referred to as ‚"gross‚" by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Source of the data: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, FAOSTAT database, last accessed May 2018.

Balance of payments, current account

Balance of payments is a statement summarizing the economic transactions between the residents of a country and non-residents during a specific period, usually a year. It includes transactions in goods, services, income, transfers and financial assets and liabilities. Generally, the balance of payments is divided into two major components: the current account and the capital and financial account. The data on balance of payments correspond to the current account category. The current account is a record of all transactions in the balance of payments covering the exports and imports of goods and services, payments of income, and current transfers between residents of a country and non-residents.

Source of the data: International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington, D.C., Balance of Payment (BOP) Statistics database, last accessed April 2018.

Capital city

Capital city and capital city population is the designation of any specific city as a capital city as reported by the country or area. The city can be the seat of the government as determined by the country. Some countries designate more than one city to be a capital city with a specific title function (e.g., administrative and/or legislative capital). The data refer to the year 2018, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision", last accessed May 2018.

Capital city pop.

Capital city and capital city population is the designation of any specific city as a capital city as reported by the country or area. The city can be the seat of the government as determined by the country. Some countries designate more than one city to be a capital city with a specific title function (e.g., administrative and/or legislative capital). The data refer to the year 2015, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision", last accessed May 2018.

CO2 emission estimates

CO2 emission estimates represent the volume of carbon dioxide (CO2) produced during the combustion of solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels, from gas flaring and the manufacture of cement. Original data were converted to CO2 emissions by using the conversion formula: 1 gram Carbon = 3.667 grams CO2.

Source of the data: Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, U.S.A., database on national CO2 emission estimates, last accessed March 2017.

CPI: Consumer Price Index

The Consumer Price Index measures the period-to-period proportional change in the prices of a fixed set of consumer goods and services of constant quantity and characteristics, acquired, used or paid for by the reference population. The index is constructed as a weighted average of a large number of elementary aggregate indices. Each of the elementary aggregate indices is estimated using a sample of prices for a defined set of goods and services obtained in, or by residents of, a specific region from a given set of outlets or other sources of consumption. The indices here generally refer to "all items" and to the country as a whole, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), New York, Monthly Bulletin of Statistics (MBS), last accessed May 2018.

Economy: Agriculture

Economy: Agriculture, industry and services and other activity presents the shares of the components of Gross Value Added (GVA) at current prices by kind of economic activity; agriculture (agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing), industry (mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply; and construction) and in services and other sectors based on the sections of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 3, unless a different revision is stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, national accounts analysis of main aggregates (AMA) database, last accessed December 2017.

Economy: Industry

Economy: Agriculture, industry and services and other activity presents the shares of the components of Gross Value Added (GVA) at current prices by kind of economic activity; agriculture (agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing), industry (mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply; and construction) and in services and other sectors based on the sections of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 3, unless a different revision is stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, national accounts analysis of main aggregates (AMA) database, last accessed December 2017.

Economy: Services and other activity

Economy: Agriculture, industry and services and other activity presents the shares of the components of Gross Value Added (GVA) at current prices by kind of economic activity; agriculture (agriculture, hunting, forestry and fishing), industry (mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply; and construction) and in services and other sectors based on the sections of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 3, unless a different revision is stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, national accounts analysis of main aggregates (AMA) database, last accessed December 2017.

Education: Government expenditure

Education: Government expenditure shows the trends in general government expenditures for educational affairs and services at pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels and subsidiary services to education, expressed as a percentage of the gross domestic product.

Source of the data: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, Montreal, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) statistics database, last accessed May2018.

Education: Primary gross enrol. ratio

Education: Primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio is the total enrolment in the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year. Education at the primary level provides the basic elements of education (e.g. at elementary school or primary school). Education at the secondary level is provided at middle school, secondary school, high school, teacher-training school at this level and schools of a vocational or technical nature. Education at the tertiary level is that which is provided at university, teachers’ college, higher professional school, and which requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the second level, or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge. Enrolment is measured at the beginning of the school or academic year. The gross enrolment ratio at each level will include all pupils whatever their ages, whereas the population is limited to the range of official school ages. Therefore, for countries with almost universal education among the school-age population, the gross enrolment ratio can exceed 100 if the actual age distribution of pupils extends beyond the official school ages.

Source of the data: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, Montreal, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) statistics database, last accessed May2018.

Education: Secondary gross enrol. ratio

Education: Primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio is the total enrolment in the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year. Education at the primary level provides the basic elements of education (e.g. at elementary school or primary school). Education at the secondary level is provided at middle school, secondary school, high school, teacher-training school at this level and schools of a vocational or technical nature. Education at the tertiary level is that which is provided at university, teachers’ college, higher professional school, and which requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the second level, or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge. Enrolment is measured at the beginning of the school or academic year. The gross enrolment ratio at each level will include all pupils whatever their ages, whereas the population is limited to the range of official school ages. Therefore, for countries with almost universal education among the school-age population, the gross enrolment ratio can exceed 100 if the actual age distribution of pupils extends beyond the official school ages.

Source of the data: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, Montreal, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) statistics database, last accessed May2018.

Education: Tertiary gross enrol. ratio

Education: Primary, secondary and tertiary gross enrolment ratio is the total enrolment in the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the eligible official school-age population corresponding to the same level of education in a given school year. Education at the primary level provides the basic elements of education (e.g. at elementary school or primary school). Education at the secondary level is provided at middle school, secondary school, high school, teacher-training school at this level and schools of a vocational or technical nature. Education at the tertiary level is that which is provided at university, teachers’ college, higher professional school, and which requires, as a minimum condition of admission, the successful completion of education at the second level, or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge. Enrolment is measured at the beginning of the school or academic year. The gross enrolment ratio at each level will include all pupils whatever their ages, whereas the population is limited to the range of official school ages. Therefore, for countries with almost universal education among the school-age population, the gross enrolment ratio can exceed 100 if the actual age distribution of pupils extends beyond the official school ages.

Source of the data: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, Montreal, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics (UIS) statistics database, last accessed May2018.

Employment in agriculture

The "employed" comprise all persons above a specified age who, during a specified brief period, either one week or one day, were in "paid employment" or in "self-employment", see ILO’s Current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics. The data refer to those 15 years and over, unless otherwise stated in a footnote, who perform any work at all in the reference period, for pay or profit in agriculture (agriculture, forestry and fishing), industry (mining and quarrying; manufacturing; electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities; and construction) and in services and other sectors based on the sections of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 4, unless an earlier revision is stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva, Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM 9th edition), last accessed March 2018.

Employment in industry

The "employed" comprise all persons above a specified age who, during a specified brief period, either one week or one day, were in "paid employment" or in "self-employment", see ILO’s Current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics. The data refer to those 15 years and over, unless otherwise stated in a footnote, who perform any work at all in the reference period, for pay or profit in agriculture (agriculture, forestry and fishing), industry (mining and quarrying; manufacturing; electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities; and construction) and in services and other sectors based on the sections of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 4, unless an earlier revision is stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva, Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM 9th edition), last accessed March 2018.

Employment in services

The "employed" comprise all persons above a specified age who, during a specified brief period, either one week or one day, were in "paid employment" or in "self-employment", see ILO’s Current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics. The data refer to those 15 years and over, unless otherwise stated in a footnote, who perform any work at all in the reference period, for pay or profit in agriculture (agriculture, forestry and fishing), industry (mining and quarrying; manufacturing; electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities; and construction) and in services and other sectors based on the sections of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 4, unless an earlier revision is stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva, Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM 9th edition), last accessed March 2018.

Energy production, primary

Energy production, primary is the capture or extraction of fuels or energy from natural energy flows, the biosphere and natural reserves of fossil fuels within the national territory in a form suitable for use. Inert matter removed from the extracted fuels and quantities reinjected, flared or vented are not included. The resulting products are referred to as ‚"primary‚" products. It excludes secondary production, that is, the manufacture of energy products through the process of transforming primary and/or other secondary fuels or energy. Data are provided in a common energy unit (Petajoule) and refer to the following primary energy sources: hard coal, brown coal, peat, oil shale, conventional crude oil, natural gas liquids (NGL), other hydrocarbons, additives and oxygenates, natural gas, fuelwood, wood residues and by-products, bagasse, animal waste, black liquor, other vegetal material and residues, biogasoline, biodiesels, bio jet kerosene, other liquid biofuels, biogases, industrial waste, municipal waste, nuclear, solar photovoltaic, solar thermal, hydro, wind, geothermal, and tide, wave and other marine sources. Peat, biomass and wastes are included only when the production is for energy purposes. See International Recommendations for Energy Statistics (2011) and 2015 Energy Balances for a complete description of the methodology.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Energy Statistics Yearbook 2015, last accessed December 2017.

Energy supply per capita

Energy supply per capita is defined as primary energy production plus imports minus exports minus international marine bunkers minus international aviation bunkers minus stock changes. For imports, exports, international bunkers and stock changes, it includes secondary energy products, in addition to primary products.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Energy Statistics Yearbook 2015, last accessed December 2017.

Exchange rate

Exchange rates in units of national currency per US dollar and refer to end-of-period quotations. The exchange rates are classified into broad categories, reflecting both the role of the authorities in the determination of the exchange and/or the multiplicity of exchange rates in a country. The market rate is used to describe exchange rates determined largely by market forces; the official rate is an exchange rate determined by the authorities, sometimes in a flexible manner. For countries maintaining multiple exchange arrangements, the rates are labelled principal rate, secondary rate, and tertiary rate.

Source of the data: International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington, D.C., the database on International Financial Statistics supplemented by operational rates of exchange for United Nations programmes, last accessed May 2018.

Fertility rate, total

Fertility rate is the total fertility rate, a widely used summary indicator of fertility. It refers to the number of children that would be born per woman, assuming no female mortality at child bearing ages and the age-specific fertility rates of a specified country and reference period. The data are an average over five-year ranges; 2000-2005 data are labelled "2005", 2005-2010 data are labelled "2010" and 2010-2015 data are labelled "2018", unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision"; supplemented by data from the United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Demographic Yearbook 2015 and Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC) for small countries or areas, last accessed June 2017.

Forested area

Forested area refers to the percentage of land area occupied by forest. Forest is defined in the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Global Forest Resources Assessment as land spanning more than 0.5 hectares with trees higher than 5 metres and a canopy cover of more than 10 percent, or trees able to reach these thresholds in situ. It does not include land that is predominantly under agricultural or urban land use. Data are calculated from the forest estimates divided by the land area.

Source of the data: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, FAOSTAT database, last accessed January 2018.

GDP growth rate

GDP growth rate is derived on the basis of constant 2010 price series in national currency. The figures are computed as the geometric mean of annual rates of growth expressed in percentages.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, national accounts analysis of main aggregates (AMA) database, last accessed December 2017.

GDP per capita

GDP per capita estimates are the value of all goods and services produced in the economy divided by the population.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, national accounts analysis of main aggregates (AMA) database, last accessed December 2017.

GDP: Gross domestic product

GDP: Gross domestic product is an aggregate measure of production equal to the sum of gross value added of all resident producer units plus that part (possibly the total) of taxes on products, less subsidies on products, that is not included in the valuation of output. It is also equal to the sum of the final uses of goods and services (all uses except intermediate consumption) measured at purchasers’ prices, less the value of imports of goods and services, and equal to the sum of primary incomes distributed by resident producer units (see System of National Accounts 2008). The data are in current United States (US) dollars and are estimates of the total production of goods and services of the countries represented in economic terms, not as a measure of the standard of living of their inhabitants. In order to have comparable coverage for as many countries as possible, these US dollar estimates are based on official GDP data in national currency, supplemented by national currency estimates prepared by the Statistics Division using additional data from national and international sources. The estimates given here are in most cases those accepted by the United Nations General Assembly’s Committee on Contributions for determining United Nations members’ contributions to the United Nations regular budget. The exchange rates for the conversion of GDP national currency data into US dollars are the average market rates published by the International Monetary Fund, in International Financial Statistics. Official exchange rates are used only when free market rates are not available. For non-members of the Fund, the conversion rates used are the average of United Nations operational rates of exchange. It should be noted that the conversion from local currency into US dollars introduces deficiencies in comparability over time and among countries which should be considered when using the data. For example, comparability over time is distorted when exchange rate fluctuations differ substantially from domestic inflation rates.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, national accounts analysis of main aggregates (AMA) database, last accessed December 2017.

Health: Current expenditure

Health: Current expenditure refers to all health care goods and services used or consumed during a year excluding capital spending, or rather "gross capital formation", which is the purchase of new assets used repeatedly over several years. These estimates are in line with the 2011 System of Health Accounts (SHA). Current expenditure is expressed as a proportion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP).

Source of the data: World Health Organization (WHO), Geneva, WHO Global Health Expenditure database, last accessed March 2018.

Health: Physicians

Health: Physicians (per 1 000 population) includes generalist medical practitioners and specialist medical practitioners. The classification of health workers used is based on criteria for vocational education and training, regulation of health professions, and activities and tasks of jobs, i.e. a framework for categorizing key workforce variables according to shared characteristics.

Source of the data: World Health Organisation (WHO), Geneva, WHO Global Health Workforce statistics database, last accessed April 2018.

Important sites for terrestrial biodiversity protected

Important sites for terrestrial biodiversity protected shows land which contributes significantly to the global persistence of biodiversity measured as a proportion of which is wholly covered by a designated protected area. Data are based on spatial overlap between polygons for Key Biodiversity Areas from the World Database of key Biodiversity Areas and polygons for protected areas from the World Database on Protected Areas. Figures for each region are calculated as the proportion of each Key Biodiversity Area covered by protected areas, averaged (i.e. calculated as the mean) across all Key Biodiversity Areas within the region.

Source of the data: United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) World Conservation Monitoring Centre (WCWC), Cambridge, Sustainable Development Goals database, last accessed May 2018.

Index of industrial production

Index of industrial production generally cover industry (mining and quarrying; manufacturing; electricity, gas, steam and air conditioning supply; water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities; and construction) based on the sections (i.e. B, C, D and E) of the International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities (ISIC), Revision 4, unless a different revision/set of sections is stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), New York,Statistical Yearbook 2013 (58th issue), last accessed November 2015.

Individuals using the Internet

Individuals using the Internet refer to the percentage of people who used the Internet from any location and for any purpose, irrespective of the device and network used. It can be via a computer (i.e. desktop or laptop computer, tablet or similar handheld computer), mobile phone, games machine, digital TV, etc. Access can be via a fixed or mobile network. There are certain data limits to this indicator, insofar as estimates have to be calculated for many developing countries which do not yet collect information and communications technology household statistics.

Source of the data: International Telecommunication Union (ITU), Geneva, the ITU database, last accessed April 2018.

Infant mortality rate

Infant mortality rate is the ratio of infant deaths (the deaths of children under one year of age) in a given year to the total number of live births in the same year, expressed as a rate per 1 000 live births. The data are an average over five-year ranges; 2000-2005 data are labelled "2005", 2005-2010 data are labelled "2010" and 2010-2015 data are labelled "2018", unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision"; supplemented by data from the United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Demographic Yearbook 2015 and Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC) for small countries or areas, last accessed June 2017.

Intentional homicide rate

Intentional homicide rate are the annual number of unlawful deaths purposefully inflicted on a person by another person, reported for the year per 100 000. For most countries, country information on causes of death is not available for most causes. Estimates are therefore based on cause of death modelling and death registration data from other countries in the region. Further country-level information and data on specific causes was also used.

Source of the data: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime, Vienna, UNODC Statistics database, last accessed May 2018.

International migrant stock

International migrant stock generally represents the number of persons born in a country other than that in which they live. When information on country of birth was not recorded, data on the number of persons having foreign citizenship was used instead. In the absence of any empirical data, estimates were imputed. Data refer to mid-year. Figures for international migrant stock as a percentage of the population are the outcome of dividing the estimated international migrant stock by the estimated total population and multiplying the result by 100.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "International migrant stock: The 2017 Revision", last accessed January 2018.

International trade: balance

Total trade: exports, imports and balance show the movement of goods out of and into a country. Goods simply being transported through a country (goods in transit) or temporarily admitted (except for goods for inward processing) do not add to the stock of material resources of a country and are not included in the international merchandise trade statistics. In the ‚"general trade system‚", the definition of the statistical territory of a country coincides with its economic territory. In the ‚"special trade system‚", the definition of the statistical territory comprises only a particular part of the economic territory, mainly that part which coincides with the free circulation area for goods. ‚"The free circulation area‚" is a part of the economic territory of a country within which goods ‚"may be disposed of without Customs restrictions‚". In the case of exports, the transaction value is the value at which the goods were sold by the exporter, including the cost of transportation and insurance, to bring the goods onto the transporting vehicle at the frontier of the exporting country (an FOB-type valuation). In the case of imports, the transaction value is the value at which the goods were purchased by the importer plus the cost of transportation and insurance to the frontier of the importing country (a CIF-type valuation). Both imports and exports are shown in United States dollars. Conversion from national currencies is made by means of currency conversion factors based on official exchange rates (par values or weighted averages). All regional aggregations are calculated as the sum of their components.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Commodity Trade Statistics Database (COMTRADE), last accessed May 2018.

International trade: exports

Total trade: exports, imports and balance show the movement of goods out of and into a country. Goods simply being transported through a country (goods in transit) or temporarily admitted (except for goods for inward processing) do not add to the stock of material resources of a country and are not included in the international merchandise trade statistics. In the ‚"general trade system‚", the definition of the statistical territory of a country coincides with its economic territory. In the ‚"special trade system‚", the definition of the statistical territory comprises only a particular part of the economic territory, mainly that part which coincides with the free circulation area for goods. ‚"The free circulation area‚" is a part of the economic territory of a country within which goods ‚"may be disposed of without Customs restrictions‚". In the case of exports, the transaction value is the value at which the goods were sold by the exporter, including the cost of transportation and insurance, to bring the goods onto the transporting vehicle at the frontier of the exporting country (an FOB-type valuation). In the case of imports, the transaction value is the value at which the goods were purchased by the importer plus the cost of transportation and insurance to the frontier of the importing country (a CIF-type valuation). Both imports and exports are shown in United States dollars. Conversion from national currencies is made by means of currency conversion factors based on official exchange rates (par values or weighted averages). All regional aggregations are calculated as the sum of their components.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Commodity Trade Statistics Database (COMTRADE), last accessed May 2018.

International trade: imports

Total trade: exports, imports and balance show the movement of goods out of and into a country. Goods simply being transported through a country (goods in transit) or temporarily admitted (except for goods for inward processing) do not add to the stock of material resources of a country and are not included in the international merchandise trade statistics. In the ‚"general trade system‚", the definition of the statistical territory of a country coincides with its economic territory. In the ‚"special trade system‚", the definition of the statistical territory comprises only a particular part of the economic territory, mainly that part which coincides with the free circulation area for goods. ‚"The free circulation area‚" is a part of the economic territory of a country within which goods ‚"may be disposed of without Customs restrictions‚". In the case of exports, the transaction value is the value at which the goods were sold by the exporter, including the cost of transportation and insurance, to bring the goods onto the transporting vehicle at the frontier of the exporting country (an FOB-type valuation). In the case of imports, the transaction value is the value at which the goods were purchased by the importer plus the cost of transportation and insurance to the frontier of the importing country (a CIF-type valuation). Both imports and exports are shown in United States dollars. Conversion from national currencies is made by means of currency conversion factors based on official exchange rates (par values or weighted averages). All regional aggregations are calculated as the sum of their components.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Commodity Trade Statistics Database (COMTRADE), last accessed May 2018.

Labour force participation rate

Labour force participation rate is calculated by expressing the number of persons in the labour force as a percentage of the working-age population. The labour force is the sum of the number of persons employed and the number of unemployed (see ILO’s current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics). The working-age population is the population above a certain age, prescribed for the measurement of economic characteristics. The data refer to the age group of 15 years and over and are based on ILO’s modelled estimates, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva, Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM 9th edition) and the ILOSTAT database, last accessed March 2018.

Life expectancy at birth

Life expectancy at birth is the average number of years of life at birth (age 0) for males and females according to the expected mortality rates by age estimated for the reference year and population. The data are an average over five-year ranges; 2000-2005 data are labelled ‚"2005‚", 2005-2010 data are labelled ‚"2010‚" and 2010-2015 data are labelled ‚"2018‚", unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision"; supplemented by data from the United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Demographic Yearbook 2015 and Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC) for small countries or areas, last accessed June 2017.

Major trading partners: Export partners

Export partners show the three largest trade partners (countries of last known destination and origin or consignment) in international merchandise trade transactions. In some cases a special partner is shown (i.e. Areas nes, bunkers, etc.) instead of a country and refers to one of the following special categories. Areas not elsewhere specified (Areas nes) is used (a) for low value trade, (b) if the partner designation was unknown to the country or if an error was made in the partner assignment and (c) for reasons of confidentiality. If a specific geographical location can be identified within Areas nes, then they are recorded accordingly (i.e. Other Europe nes, South (S.) America nes, North and Central (N & C) America nes, Oceania nes, Other Africa nes, and Other Asia nes). Bunkers are ship stores and aircraft supplies, which consists mostly of fuels and food. Free zones belong to the geographical and economic territory of a country but not to its customs territory. For the purpose of trade statistics the transactions between the customs territory and the free zones are recorded, if the reporting country uses the Special Trade System. Free zones can be commercial free zones (duty free shops) or industrial free zones. Data are expressed as percentages of total exports and of total imports of the country, area or special partner.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Commodity Trade Statistics Database (COMTRADE), last accessed May 2018.

Major trading partners: Import partners

Import partners show the three largest trade partners (countries of last known destination and origin or consignment) in international merchandise trade transactions. In some cases a special partner is shown (i.e. Areas nes, bunkers, etc.) instead of a country and refers to one of the following special categories. Areas not elsewhere specified (Areas nes) is used (a) for low value trade, (b) if the partner designation was unknown to the country or if an error was made in the partner assignment and (c) for reasons of confidentiality. If a specific geographical location can be identified within Areas nes, then they are recorded accordingly (i.e. Other Europe nes, South (S.) America nes, North and Central (N & C) America nes, Oceania nes, Other Africa nes, and Other Asia nes). Bunkers are ship stores and aircraft supplies, which consists mostly of fuels and food. Free zones belong to the geographical and economic territory of a country but not to its customs territory. For the purpose of trade statistics the transactions between the customs territory and the free zones are recorded, if the reporting country uses the Special Trade System. Free zones can be commercial free zones (duty free shops) or industrial free zones. Data are expressed as percentages of total exports and of total imports of the country, area or special partner.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Commodity Trade Statistics Database (COMTRADE), last accessed May 2018.

National currency

Currency refers to those notes and coins in circulation that are commonly used to make payments. The official currency names and the ISO currency codes are those officially in use, and may be subject to change.

Source of the data: International Standards Organisation, Geneva, Currency Code Services - ISO 4217 Maintenance Agency, last accessed May 2018.

Net Official Development Assist. disbursed

Net Official Development Assistance received or disbursed is defined as those flows to developing countries and multilateral institutions provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies, each transaction of which meets the following tests: i) it is administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as its main objective; and ii) it is concessional in character and conveys a grant element of at least 25 per cent. It is expressed as a percentage of Gross National Income of either the donor or recipient. The multilateral institutions include the World Bank Group, regional banks, financial institutions of the European Union and a number of United Nations institutions, programmes and trust funds.

Source of the data: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, the OECD Development Assistance Committee database, last accessed May 2018.

Net Official Development Assist. received

Net Official Development Assistance received or disbursed is defined as those flows to developing countries and multilateral institutions provided by official agencies, including state and local governments, or by their executive agencies, each transaction of which meets the following tests: i) it is administered with the promotion of the economic development and welfare of developing countries as its main objective; and ii) it is concessional in character and conveys a grant element of at least 25 per cent. It is expressed as a percentage of Gross National Income of either the donor or recipient. The multilateral institutions include the World Bank Group, regional banks, financial institutions of the European Union and a number of United Nations institutions, programmes and trust funds.

Source of the data: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Paris, the OECD Development Assistance Committee database, last accessed May 2018.

Pop. density

Population density refers to the medium fertility projected population as of 1 July 2018 per square kilometre of surface area, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision", last accessed June 2017.

Pop. using improved drinking water

Population using improved drinking water sources is the percentage of the population in urban and rural areas, according to national definitions, who use any of the following types of water supply for drinking: piped water, public tap, borehole or pump, protected well, protected spring or rainwater. Improved water sources do not include vendor-provided water, bottled water, tanker trucks or unprotected wells and springs. Use of an improved drinking water source is a proxy for the use of safe drinking water, see www.wssinfo.org for further information.

Source of the data: World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Geneva and New York, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for the Water and Sanitation database, last accessed October 2015.

Pop. using improved sanitation facilities

Population using improved sanitation facilities refers to the percentage of the population in urban and rural areas, according to national definitions, with access to facilities that hygienically separate human excreta from human, animal and insect contact. Facilities such as sewers or septic tanks, poor flush latrines and simple pit or ventilated improved pit latrines are assumed to be adequate, provided that they are not public. To be effective, facilities must be correctly constructed and properly maintained. Sanitation facilities are not considered improved when shared with other households, or open to public use. Use of an improved sanitation facility is a proxy for access to basic sanitation, see www.wssinfo.org for further information.

Source of the data: World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), Geneva and New York, the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for the Water and Sanitation database, last accessed October 2015.

Population

Population refers to the medium fertility projected de facto population as of 1 July 2018, unless otherwise stated in a footnote. The total population of a country may comprise either all usual residents of the country (de jure population) or all persons present in the country (de facto population) at the time of the census; for purposes of international comparisons, the de facto definition is used, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision", last accessed June 2017.

Population age distribution

Population aged 0-14 years / 60 years and over refers to the percentage of the medium fertility projected population aged 0-14 years and aged 60 years and older at the mid-year, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision"; supplemented by data from the United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Demographic Yearbook 2015 and Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC) for small countries or areas, last accessed June 2017.

Population growth rate

Population growth rate is the average annual percentage change in total population size. The data are an average over five-year ranges; 2000-2005 data are labelled "2005", 2005-2010 data are labelled "2010" and 2010-2015 data are labelled "2018", unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision", last accessed June 2017.

Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR

The 1951 United Nations Convention relating to the Status of Refugees states that a refugee is someone who, owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, political opinion or membership in a particular social group, is outside the country of his or her nationality and is unable to, or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself or herself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his or her former habitual residence, is unable or, owing to such fear, unwilling to return to it. In this series, refugees refer to persons granted a humanitarian status and/or those granted temporary protection. Included are persons who have been granted temporary protection on a group basis. The series also includes returned refugees, asylum-seekers, stateless persons and persons displaced internally within their own country and others of concern to UNHCR.

Source of the data: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), Geneva, UNHCR Population Statistics Database, last accessed February 2018.

Region

Region is based on macro geographical regions arranged according to continents and component geographical regions used for statistical purposes as at 31 July 2017.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Statistical Yearbook 2017 edition (60th issue) Annex I - Country and area nomenclature, regional and other groupings (based on Series M49: Standard Country or Area codes and Geographical Regions for Statistical Use), last accessed Octber 2017.

Research & Development expenditure

Research & Development expenditure refers to expenditure on creative work undertaken on a systematic basis in order to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications, expressed as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). It is the total intramural expenditure on R&D performed on the national territory during a given period. It includes R&D performed within a country and funded from abroad but excludes payments made abroad for R&D.

Source of the data: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Statistics, Montreal, the UNESCO Institute for Statistics database, last accessed November 2017.

Seats held by women in National Parliaments

Seats held by women in national parliaments refer to the number of women in the lower chamber of national parliaments expressed as a percentage of total occupied seats in the lower or single House, situation as of 1 February 2018.

Source of the data: Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), Geneva, Women in National Parliament dataset and the Millennium Development Goals Indicators database, last accessed March 2018.

Sex ratio

Sex ratio is calculated as the ratio of the medium fertility projected population of men to that of 100 women as of 1 July 2018, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision; supplemented by data from the United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Demographic Yearbook 2015 and Secretariat for the Pacific Community (SPC) for small countries or areas, last accessed June 2017.

Surface area

Surface area refers to land area plus inland water, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Statistics Division, New York, Demographic Yearbook 2015 and the demographic statistics database, last accessed June 2017.

Threatened species

Threatened species represents the number of plants and animals that are most in need of conservation attention and are compiled by the World Conservation Union IUCN/ Species Survival Commission (SSC).

Source of the data: World Conservation Union (IUCN) / Species Survival Commission (SSC), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, United Kingdom, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species publication, last accessed May 2017.

Tourist/visitor arrivals at national borders

Tourist arrivals at national borders is any person who travels to a country other than that in which he or she has his or her usual residence but outside his/her usual environment for a period not exceeding 12 months and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from with the country visited, and who stays at least one night in a collective or private accommodation in the country visited (see Recommendations on Tourism Statistics of the United Nations and the World Tourism Organization). The data refer to arrivals of non-resident tourists at national borders, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: World Tourism Organization (WTO), Madrid, the WTO Statistics Database, last accessed January 2018.

UN membership date

The United Nations is an intergovernmental organization whose members are the countries of the world. Currently there are 193 Member States of the United Nations, some of which joined the UN by signing and ratifying the Charter of the United Nations in 1945; the other countries joined the UN later, through the adoption of a resolution admitting them to membership. The process usually follows these steps: first, the country applies for membership and makes a declaration accepting the obligations of the Charter; second, the Security Council adopts a resolution recommending that the General Assembly admit the country to membership and finally the General Assembly adopts a resolution admitting the country.

Source of the data: United Nations, New York, Member states and date of admission, last accessed May 2018.

Unemployment rate

Unemployment refers to persons above a specified age who during a specified reference period were: "without work", i.e. were not in paid employment or self-employment as defined under employment; "currently available for work", i.e. were available for paid employment or self-employment during the reference period; and "seeking work", i.e. had taken specific steps in a specified recent period to seek paid employment or self-employment (see ILO’s current International Recommendations on Labour Statistics). The data refer to the 15 years and over age group and are based on ILO’s modelled estimates, unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva, Key Indicators of the Labour Market (KILM 9th edition) and the ILOSTAT database, last accessed March 2018.

Urban population

Urban population is based on the number of persons at the mid-year defined as urban according to national definitions of this concept. In most cases these definitions are those used in the most recent population census.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision", last accessed May 2018

Urban population growth rate

Urban population growth rate is based on the number of persons defined as urban according to national definitions of this concept. In most cases these definitions are those used in the most recent population census. The data are an average over five-year ranges; 2000-2005 data are labelled ‚"2005‚", 2005-2010 are labelled ‚"2010‚" and 2010-2015 data are labelled ‚"2018‚", unless otherwise stated in a footnote.

Source of the data: United Nations Population Division, New York, "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2018 Revision", last accessed May 2018.