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SDG3.1 SDG3.7 SDG5.5 SDG4.6
Gender Inequality Index Maternal mortality ratio Adolescent birth rate Share of seats in parliament Population with at least some secondary education Labour force participation rate  a
Value Rank (deaths per 100,000 live births) (births per 1,000 women ages 15?19) (% held by women) (% ages 25 and older) (% ages 15 and older)
HDI rank Country Female Male Female Male
2018 2018 2015 2015-2020 b 2018 2010?2018 c 2010?2018 c 2018 2018
VERY HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1 Norway 0.044 5 5 5.1 41.4 96.1 94.8 60.2 66.7
2 Switzerland 0.037 1 5 2.8 29.3 96.4 97.2 62.6 74.1
3 Ireland 0.093 22 8 7.5 24.3 90.2 d 86.3 d 55.1 68.1
4 Germany 0.084 19 6 8.1 31.5 96.0 96.6 55.3 66.2
4 Hong Kong, China (SAR) .. .. .. 2.7 .. 76.6 82.9 54.1 67.8
6 Australia 0.103 25 6 11.7 32.7 90.0 90.7 59.7 70.5
6 Iceland 0.057 9 3 6.3 38.1 100.0 e 100.0 e 72.1 80.6
8 Sweden 0.040 2 4 5.1 46.1 88.8 89.0 61.1 67.6
9 Singapore 0.065 11 10 3.5 23.0 76.3 83.3 60.5 76.3
10 Netherlands 0.041 4 7 3.8 35.6 86.6 90.1 58.0 68.9
11 Denmark 0.040 2 6 4.1 37.4 89.2 89.4 58.1 65.9
12 Finland 0.050 7 3 5.8 42.0 100.0 100.0 55.0 62.2
13 Canada 0.083 18 7 8.4 31.7 100.0 e 100.0 e 60.9 69.7
14 New Zealand 0.133 34 11 19.3 38.3 97.2 96.6 64.6 75.7
15 United Kingdom 0.119 27 9 13.4 28.9 82.9 85.7 57.1 67.8
15 United States 0.182 42 14 19.9 23.6 95.7 95.5 56.1 68.2
17 Belgium 0.045 6 7 4.7 41.4 82.6 87.1 47.9 58.9
18 Liechtenstein .. .. .. .. 12.0 .. .. .. ..
19 Japan 0.099 23 5 3.8 13.7 95.2 d 92.2 d 51.4 70.7
20 Austria 0.073 14 4 7.3 34.8 100.0 100.0 54.8 65.9
21 Luxembourg 0.078 16 10 4.7 20.0 100.0 100.0 53.5 62.7
22 Israel 0.100 24 5 9.6 27.5 87.8 90.5 59.2 69.1
22 Korea (Republic of) 0.058 10 11 1.4 17.0 89.8 95.6 52.8 73.3
24 Slovenia 0.069 12 9 3.8 20.0 97.0 98.3 53.4 62.7
25 Spain 0.074 15 5 7.7 38.6 73.3 78.4 51.7 63.4
26 Czechia 0.137 35 4 12.0 20.3 99.8 99.8 52.4 68.4
26 France 0.051 8 8 4.7 35.7 81.0 86.3 50.3 60.0
28 Malta 0.195 44 9 12.9 11.9 74.3 82.2 43.3 66.2
29 Italy 0.069 12 4 5.2 35.6 75.6 83.0 40.0 58.4
30 Estonia 0.091 21 9 7.7 26.7 100.0 e 100.0 e 57.0 70.9
31 Cyprus 0.086 20 7 4.6 17.9 78.2 82.6 57.3 67.2
32 Greece 0.122 31 3 7.2 18.7 61.5 73.2 45.3 60.7
32 Poland 0.120 30 3 10.5 25.5 82.9 88.1 48.9 65.5
34 Lithuania 0.124 33 10 10.9 21.3 92.9 97.5 56.4 66.7
35 United Arab Emirates 0.113 26 6 6.5 22.5 78.8 d 65.7 d 51.2 93.4
36 Andorra .. .. .. .. 32.1 71.5 73.3 .. ..
36 Saudi Arabia 0.224 49 12 7.3 19.9 67.8 75.5 23.4 79.2
36 Slovakia 0.190 43 6 25.7 20.0 99.1 100.0 52.7 67.4
39 Latvia 0.169 40 18 16.2 31.0 100.0 e 99.1 e 55.4 68.0
40 Portugal 0.081 17 10 8.4 34.8 53.6 54.8 53.9 64.2
41 Qatar 0.202 45 13 9.9 9.8 73.5 66.1 57.8 94.7
42 Chile 0.288 62 22 41.1 22.7 79.0 80.9 51.0 74.2
43 Brunei Darussalam 0.234 51 23 10.3 9.1 69.5 d 70.6 d 58.2 71.7
43 Hungary 0.258 56 17 24.0 12.6 96.3 98.2 48.3 65.0
45 Bahrain 0.207 47 15 13.4 18.8 64.2 d 57.5 d 44.5 87.3
46 Croatia 0.122 31 8 8.7 18.5 94.5 96.9 45.7 58.2
47 Oman 0.304 65 17 13.1 8.8 73.4 63.7 31.0 88.7
48 Argentina 0.354 77 52 62.8 39.5 66.5 d 63.3 d 49.0 72.8
49 Russian Federation 0.255 54 25 20.7 16.1 96.3 95.7 54.9 70.5
50 Belarus 0.119 27 4 14.5 33.1 87.2 92.5 58.1 70.3
50 Kazakhstan 0.203 46 12 29.8 22.1 98.3 d 98.9 d 65.2 77.1
52 Bulgaria 0.218 48 11 39.9 23.8 94.2 96.2 49.5 61.6
52 Montenegro 0.119 27 7 9.3 23.5 88.0 97.5 43.6 58.1
52 Romania 0.316 69 31 36.2 18.7 87.2 93.1 45.6 64.2
55 Palau .. .. .. .. 13.8 96.9 97.3 .. ..
56 Barbados 0.256 55 27 33.6 27.5 94.6 d 91.9 d 61.9 69.6
57 Kuwait 0.245 53 4 8.2 3.1 56.8 49.3 57.5 85.3
57 Uruguay 0.275 59 15 58.7 22.3 57.8 54.0 55.8 73.8
59 Turkey 0.305 66 16 26.6 17.4 44.3 66.0 33.5 72.6
60 Bahamas 0.353 76 80 30.0 21.8 88.0 91.0 67.6 82.0
61 Malaysia 0.274 58 40 13.4 15.8 79.8 d 81.8 d 50.9 77.4
62 Seychelles .. .. .. 62.1 21.2 .. .. .. ..
HIGH HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
63 Serbia 0.161 37 17 14.7 34.4 85.7 93.6 46.8 62.1
63 Trinidad and Tobago 0.323 72 63 30.1 30.1 74.4 d 71.2 d 50.4 71.3
65 Iran (Islamic Republic of) 0.492 118 25 40.6 5.9 67.4 72.0 16.8 71.2
66 Mauritius 0.369 82 53 25.7 11.6 65.7 d 68.1 d 45.0 71.8
67 Panama 0.460 108 94 81.8 18.3 74.8 d 68.4 d 52.5 80.5
68 Costa Rica 0.285 61 25 53.5 45.6 53.8 52.3 45.7 74.6
69 Albania 0.234 51 29 19.6 27.9 93.5 92.8 47.2 64.9
70 Georgia 0.351 75 36 46.4 16.0 97.4 98.6 57.8 78.7
71 Sri Lanka 0.380 86 30 20.9 5.8 82.6 d 83.1 d 34.9 72.2
72 Cuba 0.312 67 39 51.6 53.2 86.7 d 88.9 d 40.0 67.4
73 Saint Kitts and Nevis .. .. .. .. 13.3 .. .. .. ..
74 Antigua and Barbuda .. .. .. 42.8 31.4 .. .. .. ..
75 Bosnia and Herzegovina 0.162 38 11 9.6 19.3 73.1 90.0 35.6 58.6
76 Mexico 0.334 74 38 60.4 48.4 58.4 61.1 43.8 78.9
77 Thailand 0.377 84 20 44.9 5.3 43.1 48.2 59.5 76.2
78 Grenada .. .. 27 29.2 39.3 .. .. .. ..
79 Brazil 0.386 89 44 59.1 15.0 61.0 57.7 54.0 74.4
79 Colombia 0.411 94 64 66.7 19.0 53.1 50.9 58.6 82.0
81 Armenia 0.259 57 25 21.5 18.1 96.9 97.6 49.6 69.9
82 Algeria 0.443 100 140 10.1 21.3 39.1 d 38.9 d 14.9 67.4
82 North Macedonia 0.145 36 8 15.7 38.3 41.6 f 57.6 f 42.7 67.5
82 Peru 0.381 87 68 56.9 27.7 57.4 68.5 69.9 84.7
85 China 0.163 39 27 7.6 24.9 75.4 d 83.0 d 61.3 75.9
85 Ecuador 0.389 90 64 79.3 38.0 51.9 51.9 56.6 81.8
87 Azerbaijan 0.321 70 25 55.8 16.8 93.9 97.5 63.1 69.7
88 Ukraine 0.284 60 24 23.7 12.3 94.0 d 95.2 d 46.7 62.8
89 Dominican Republic 0.453 104 92 94.3 24.3 58.6 54.4 50.9 77.6
89 Saint Lucia 0.333 73 48 40.5 20.7 49.2 42.1 60.2 75.3
91 Tunisia 0.300 63 62 7.8 31.3 42.3 d 54.6 d 24.1 69.9
92 Mongolia 0.322 71 44 31.0 17.1 91.2 86.3 53.3 66.7
93 Lebanon 0.362 79 15 14.5 4.7 54.3 g 55.6 g 23.5 70.9
94 Botswana 0.464 111 129 46.1 9.5 89.6 d 90.3 d 66.2 78.6
94 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines .. .. 45 49.0 13.0 .. .. 57.3 79.2
96 Jamaica 0.405 93 89 52.8 19.0 69.9 62.4 60.4 73.9
96 Venezuela (Bolivarian Republic of) 0.458 106 95 85.3 22.2 71.7 66.6 47.7 77.1
98 Dominica .. .. .. .. 25.0 .. .. .. ..
98 Fiji 0.357 78 30 49.4 19.6 78.3 d 70.2 d 38.1 76.1
98 Paraguay 0.482 117 132 70.5 16.0 47.3 48.3 56.9 84.1
98 Suriname 0.465 112 155 61.7 25.5 61.5 60.1 39.2 64.2
102 Jordan 0.469 113 58 25.9 15.4 82.0 d 85.9 d 14.1 64.0
103 Belize 0.391 91 28 68.5 11.1 78.9 78.4 53.3 81.4
104 Maldives 0.367 81 68 7.8 5.9 44.9 d 49.3 d 41.9 82.0
105 Tonga 0.418 96 124 14.7 7.4 94.0 d 93.4 d 45.3 74.1
106 Philippines 0.425 98 114 54.2 29.1 75.6 d 72.4 d 45.7 74.1
107 Moldova (Republic of) 0.228 50 23 22.4 22.8 95.5 97.4 38.9 45.6
108 Turkmenistan .. .. 42 24.4 24.8 .. .. 52.8 78.2
108 Uzbekistan 0.303 64 36 23.8 16.4 99.9 99.9 53.4 78.0
110 Libya 0.172 41 9 5.8 16.0 69.4 d 45.0 d 25.7 79.0
111 Indonesia 0.451 103 126 47.4 19.8 44.5 53.2 52.2 82.0
111 Samoa 0.364 80 51 23.9 10.0 79.1 h 71.6 h 23.7 38.6
113 South Africa 0.422 97 138 67.9 41.8 i 75.0 78.2 48.9 62.6
114 Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 0.446 101 206 64.9 51.8 52.8 65.1 56.6 79.4
115 Gabon 0.534 128 291 96.2 17.4 j 65.6 d 49.8 d 43.4 60.2
116 Egypt 0.450 102 33 53.8 14.9 59.2 d 71.2 d 22.8 73.2
MEDIUM HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
117 Marshall Islands .. .. .. .. 9.1 91.6 92.5 .. ..
118 Viet Nam 0.314 68 54 30.9 26.7 66.2 d 77.7 d 72.7 82.5
119 Palestine, State of .. .. 45 52.8 .. 60.0 62.2 19.3 71.1
120 Iraq 0.540 131 50 71.7 25.2 39.5 d 56.5 d 12.4 72.6
121 Morocco 0.492 118 121 31.0 18.4 29.0 d 35.6 d 21.4 70.4
122 Kyrgyzstan 0.381 87 76 32.8 19.2 98.6 d 98.3 d 48.0 75.8
123 Guyana 0.492 118 229 74.4 31.9 70.9 d 55.5 d 41.2 73.6
124 El Salvador 0.397 92 54 69.5 31.0 39.9 46.3 46.1 78.9
125 Tajikistan 0.377 84 32 57.1 20.0 98.8 d 87.0 d 27.8 59.7
126 Cabo Verde 0.372 83 42 73.8 20.8 k 28.7 31.2 65.1 73.2
126 Guatemala 0.492 118 88 70.9 12.7 38.4 37.2 41.1 85.0
126 Nicaragua 0.455 105 150 85.0 45.7 48.3 d 46.6 d 50.7 83.7
129 India 0.501 122 174 13.2 11.7 39.0 d 63.5 d 23.6 78.6
130 Namibia 0.460 108 265 63.6 39.7 40.5 d 41.9 d 56.2 65.9
131 Timor-Leste .. .. 215 33.8 33.8 .. .. 25.0 52.6
132 Honduras 0.479 116 129 72.9 21.1 34.2 32.6 47.2 83.7
132 Kiribati .. .. 90 16.2 6.5 .. .. .. ..
134 Bhutan 0.436 99 148 20.2 15.3 7.6 17.5 58.2 74.5
135 Bangladesh 0.536 129 176 83.0 20.3 45.3 d 49.2 d 36.0 81.3
135 Micronesia (Federated States of) .. .. 100 13.9 0.0 l .. .. .. ..
137 Sao Tome and Principe 0.547 136 156 94.6 14.5 31.5 45.8 43.3 76.2
138 Congo 0.579 145 442 112.2 14.0 46.7 d 51.3 d 66.9 71.6
138 Eswatini (Kingdom of) 0.579 145 389 76.7 12.1 31.3 d 33.9 d 41.4 65.9
140 Lao People's Democratic Republic 0.463 110 197 65.4 27.5 35.0 d 46.0 d 76.8 79.7
141 Vanuatu .. .. 78 49.4 0.0 l .. .. 61.5 79.6
142 Ghana 0.541 133 319 66.6 12.7 55.7 d 71.1 d 63.6 71.5
143 Zambia 0.540 131 224 120.1 18.0 39.2 d 52.4 d 70.8 79.8
144 Equatorial Guinea .. .. 342 155.6 18.0 .. .. 55.2 67.1
145 Myanmar 0.458 106 178 28.5 10.2 28.7 d 22.3 d 47.7 77.3
146 Cambodia 0.474 114 161 50.2 19.3 15.1 d 28.1 d 75.2 87.6
147 Kenya 0.545 134 510 75.1 23.3 29.8 d 37.3 d 63.6 69.1
147 Nepal 0.476 115 258 65.1 33.5 29.0 d 44.2 d 81.7 84.4
149 Angola 0.578 144 477 150.5 30.5 23.1 38.1 75.4 80.1
150 Cameroon 0.566 140 596 105.8 29.3 32.7 40.9 71.2 81.4
150 Zimbabwe 0.525 126 443 86.1 34.3 55.9 66.3 78.6 89.0
152 Pakistan 0.547 136 178 38.8 20.0 26.7 47.3 23.9 81.5
153 Solomon Islands .. .. 114 78.0 2.0 .. .. 62.4 80.3
LOW HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
154 Syrian Arab Republic 0.547 136 68 38.6 13.2 37.1 d 43.4 d 12.0 70.3
155 Papua New Guinea 0.740 161 215 52.7 0.0 l 9.9 d 15.2 d 46.0 47.6
156 Comoros .. .. 335 65.4 6.1 .. .. 37.4 50.7
157 Rwanda 0.412 95 290 39.1 55.7 12.9 d 17.9 d 84.2 83.6
158 Nigeria .. .. 814 107.3 5.8 .. .. 50.6 59.8
159 Tanzania (United Republic of) 0.539 130 398 118.4 37.2 11.9 d 16.9 d 79.4 87.2
159 Uganda 0.531 127 343 118.8 34.3 27.4 d 34.7 d 67.2 75.0
161 Mauritania 0.620 150 602 71.0 20.3 12.7 d 24.9 d 29.2 63.2
162 Madagascar .. .. 353 109.6 19.6 .. .. 83.6 89.3
163 Benin 0.613 148 405 86.1 7.2 18.2 d 33.6 d 69.2 73.3
164 Lesotho 0.546 135 487 92.7 22.7 32.8 d 25.1 d 59.8 74.9
165 Côte d'Ivoire 0.657 157 645 117.6 9.2 m 17.8 d 34.1 d 48.3 66.0
166 Senegal 0.523 125 315 72.7 41.8 11.1 21.4 35.2 58.6
167 Togo 0.566 140 368 89.1 17.6 27.6 d 54.0 d 76.1 79.3
168 Sudan 0.560 139 311 64.0 31.0 15.3 d 19.6 d 24.5 70.3
169 Haiti 0.620 150 359 51.7 2.7 26.9 d 39.9 d 63.3 72.8
170 Afghanistan 0.575 143 396 69.0 27.4 j 13.2 d 36.9 d 48.7 82.1
171 Djibouti .. .. 229 18.8 26.2 .. .. 54.8 71.1
172 Malawi 0.615 149 634 132.7 16.7 17.6 d 25.9 d 72.9 82.0
173 Ethiopia 0.508 123 353 66.7 37.3 11.5 n 22.0 n 74.2 86.5
174 Gambia 0.620 150 706 78.2 10.3 30.7 n 43.6 n 51.7 67.7
174 Guinea .. .. 679 135.3 21.9 .. .. 64.1 65.1
176 Liberia 0.651 155 725 136.0 11.7 18.5 d 39.6 d 54.7 57.5
177 Yemen 0.834 162 385 60.4 0.5 19.9 d 35.5 d 6.0 70.8
178 Guinea-Bissau .. .. 549 104.8 13.7 .. .. 67.3 78.9
179 Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 0.655 156 693 124.2 8.2 36.7 65.8 60.8 66.5
180 Mozambique 0.569 142 489 148.6 39.6 14.0 27.3 77.5 79.6
181 Sierra Leone 0.644 153 1,360 112.8 12.3 19.9 d 32.9 d 57.7 58.5
182 Burkina Faso 0.612 147 371 104.3 11.0 6.0 n 12.1 n 58.5 75.1
182 Eritrea .. .. 501 52.6 22.0 .. .. 74.1 87.1
184 Mali 0.676 158 587 169.1 8.8 7.3 f 16.4 f 61.3 80.9
185 Burundi 0.520 124 712 55.6 38.8 7.5 d 11.0 d 80.4 77.6
186 South Sudan .. .. 789 62.0 26.6 .. .. 71.8 74.3
187 Chad 0.701 160 856 161.1 15.3 1.7 n 10.3 n 64.8 77.9
188 Central African Republic 0.682 159 882 129.1 8.6 13.4 d 31.1 d 64.7 79.8
189 Niger 0.647 154 553 186.5 17.0 4.3 d 8.9 d 67.3 90.5
OTHER COUNTRIES OR TERRITORIES
.. Korea (Democratic People's Rep. of) .. .. 82 0.3 16.3 .. .. 74.3 87.3
.. Monaco .. .. .. .. 33.3 .. .. .. ..
.. Nauru .. .. .. .. 10.5 .. .. .. ..
.. San Marino .. .. .. .. 26.7 .. .. .. ..
.. Somalia .. .. 732 100.1 24.3 .. .. 19.1 74.3
.. Tuvalu .. .. .. .. 6.7 .. .. .. ..
Human development groups
Very high human development 0.175 - 15 16.7 27.2 87.0 88.7 52.1 69.0
High human development 0.331 - 56 33.6 24.4 68.9 74.5 53.9 75.6
Medium human development 0.501 - 198 34.3 20.8 39.5 58.7 32.3 78.9
Low human development 0.590 - 557 101.1 21.3 17.8 30.3 58.2 73.1
Developing countries 0.466 - 231 46.8 22.4 55.0 65.8 46.6 76.6
Regions
Arab States 0.531 - 148 46.6 18.3 45.9 54.9 20.4 73.8
East Asia and the Pacific 0.310 - 62 22.0 20.3 68.8 76.2 59.7 77.0
Europe and Central Asia 0.276 - 25 27.8 21.2 78.1 85.8 45.2 70.1
Latin America and the Caribbean 0.383 - 68 63.2 31.0 59.7 59.3 51.8 77.2
South Asia 0.510 - 176 26.1 17.1 39.9 60.8 25.9 78.8
Sub-Saharan Africa 0.573 - 550 104.7 23.5 28.8 39.8 63.5 72.9
Least developed countries 0.561 - 434 T 94.4 22.5 25.3 34.9 57.3 78.8
Small island developing states 0.453 - 192 57.5 24.6 59.0 61.5 51.0 70.2
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development 0.182 - 14 20.5 30.1 84.8 87.7 51.6 68.5
World 0.439 - 216 T 42.9 24.1 62.8 71.2 48.0 74.9
NOTES
a. Estimates modelled by the International Labour Organization.
b. Data are average annual estimates for 2015?2020.
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Based on Barro and Lee (2018).
e. Based on data from OECD (2018).
f. Updated by HDRO based on data from United Nations Children's Fund Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys for 2006-2018.
g. Based on cross-country regression.
h. Based on data from the national statistical office.
i. Excludes the 36 special rotating delegates appointed on an ad hoc basis.
j. Refers to 2017.
k. Refers to 2013.
l. In calculating the Gender Inequality Index, a value of 0.1 percent was used.
m. Refers to 2015.
n. Updated by HDRO based on data from ICF Macro Demographic and Health Surveys for 2006-2018.
T. From original data source.
DEFINITIONS
Gender Inequality Index: A composite measure reflecting inequality in achievement between women and men in three dimensions: reproductive health, empowerment and the labour market. See Technical note 4 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2019_technical_notes.pdf for details on how the Gender Inequality Index is calculated. 
Maternal mortality ratio: Number of deaths due to pregnancy-related causes per 100,000 live births. 
Adolescent birth rate: Number of births to women ages 15?19 per 1,000 women ages 15?19. 
Share of seats in parliament: Proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament expressed as a percentage of total seats. For countries with a bicameral legislative system, the share of seats is calculated based on both houses.
Population with at least some secondary education: Percentage of the population ages 25 and older that has reached (but not necessarily completed) a secondary level of education.
Labour force participation rate: Proportion of the working-age population (ages 15 and older) that engages in the labour market, either by working or actively looking for work, expressed as a percentage of the working-age population.
MAIN DATA SOURCES
Column 1: HDRO calculations based on data in columns 3 - 9.
Column 2: Calculated based on data in column 1.
Column 3: UN Maternal Mortality Estimation Group (2017). 
Column 4: UNDESA (2019b). 
Column 5: IPU (2019). 
Columns 6 and 7: UNESCO Institute for Statistics (2019) and Barro and Lee (2018).
Columns 8 and 9: ILO (2019). 
Source

Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2019

Source:  United Nations Development Programme

The Human Development Report is a reliable source and an alternative perspective on critical issues for human development worldwide. Featuring the Human Development Index, every report presents agenda-setting data and analysis and calls international attention to issues and policy options that put people at the center of strategies to meet the challenges of development today - economic, social, political, and cultural.
Last update in UNdata: 2020/02/06
Next update in UNdata: 2021/02/01