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SDG 1.2 SDG 1.2 SDG 1.1
Multidimensional Poverty Index a Population in multidimensional poverty a Population vulnerable to multidimensional poverty a Contribution of deprivation in dimension to overall multidimensional poverty a Population living below income poverty line
(%)
Year and survey b Index Headcount Intensity of deprivation Number of poor (year of the survey) Number of poor (2017) Inequality among the poor Population in severe multidimensional poverty  Health Education Standard of living National poverty line PPP $1.90 a day
Country 2007-2018 Value (%) (%) (thousands) (thousands) Value (%) (%) (%) 2007-2018 c 2007-2017 c
Afghanistan 2015/2016 D 0.272 d 55.9 d 48.6 d 19,376 d 19,865 d 0.020 d 24.9 d 18.1 d 10.0 d 45.0 d 45.0 d 54.5
Albania 2017/2018 D 0.003 0.7 39.1 21 21 .. e 0.1 5.0 28.3 55.1 16.7 14.3 1.1
Algeria 2012/2013 M 0.008 2.1 38.8 805 868 0.006 0.3 5.8 29.9 46.8 23.2 5.5 0.5
Angola 2015/2016 D 0.282 51.1 55.3 14,725 15,221 0.024 32.5 15.5 21.2 32.1 46.8 36.6 30.1
Armenia 2015/2016 D 0.001 0.2 36.2 5 5 .. e 0.0 2.7 33.1 36.8 30.1 25.7 1.4
Bangladesh 2014 D 0.198 41.7 47.5 66,468 68,663 0.016 16.7 21.4 23.5 29.2 47.3 24.3 14.8
Barbados 2012 M 0.009 f 2.5 f 34.2 f 7 f 7 f .. e,f 0.0 f 0.5 f 96.0 f 0.7 f 3.3 f
Belize 2015/2016 M 0.017 4.3 39.8 16 16 0.007 0.6 8.4 39.5 20.9 39.6
Benin 2017/2018 D 0.368 66.8 55.0 7,672 7,465 0.025 40.9 14.7 20.8 36.3 42.9 40.1 49.5
Bhutan 2010 M 0.175 g 37.3 g 46.8 g 272 g 302 g 0.016 g 14.7 g 17.7 g 24.2 g 36.6 g 39.2 g 8.2 1.5
Bolivia (Plurinational State of) 2008 D 0.094 20.4 46.0 1,958 2,254 0.014 7.1 15.7 21.6 26.6 51.8 36.4 5.8
Bosnia and Herzegovina 2011/2012 M 0.008 f 2.2 f 37.9 f 80 f 77 f 0.002 f 0.1 f 4.1 f 79.7 f 7.2 f 13.1 f 16.9 0.1
Brazil 2015 N h 0.016 d,g,h 3.8 d,g,h 42.5 d,g,h 7,913 d,g,h 8,041 d,g,h 0.008 d,g,h 0.9 d,g,h 6.2 d,g,h 49.8 d,g,h 22.9 d,g,h 27.3 d,g,h 26.5 4.8
Burkina Faso 2010 D 0.519 83.8 61.9 13,083 16,091 0.027 64.8 7.4 20.0 40.6 39.4 40.1 43.7
Burundi 2016/2017 D 0.403 74.3 54.3 8,067 8,067 0.022 45.3 16.3 23.3 27.5 49.2 64.9 71.8
Cambodia 2014 D 0.170 37.2 45.8 5,679 5,952 0.015 13.2 21.1 21.8 31.7 46.6 17.7
Cameroon 2014 M 0.243 45.3 53.5 10,081 10,903 0.026 25.6 17.3 23.2 28.2 48.6 37.5 23.8
Central African Republic 2010 M 0.465 g 79.4 g 58.6 g 3,530 g 3,697 g 0.028 g 54.7 g 13.1 g 27.8 g 25.7 g 46.5 g 62.0 66.3
Chad 2014/2015 D 0.533 85.7 62.3 12,002 12,765 0.026 66.1 9.9 20.1 34.4 45.5 46.7 38.4
China 2014 N i 0.016 j,k 3.9 j,k 41.3 j,k 53,688 j,k 54,437 j,k 0.005 j,k 0.3 j,k 17.1 j,k 35.2 j,k 39.2 j,k 25.5 j,k 3.1 0.7
Colombia 2015/2016 D 0.020 d 4.8 d 40.6 d 2,358 d 2,378 d 0.009 d 0.8 d 6.2 d 12.0 d 39.5 d 48.5 d 27.0 3.9
Comoros 2012 D 0.181 37.3 48.5 270 303 0.020 16.1 22.3 20.8 31.6 47.6 42.4 17.9
Congo 2014/2015 M 0.112 24.3 46.0 1,212 1,277 0.013 9.4 21.3 23.4 20.2 56.4 46.5 37.0
Congo (Democratic Republic of the) 2013/2014 D 0.389 74.0 52.5 54,590 60,230 0.020 43.9 16.8 26.1 18.4 55.5 63.9 76.6
Côte d'Ivoire 2016 M 0.236 46.1 51.2 10,916 11,192 0.019 24.5 17.6 19.6 40.4 40.0 46.3 28.2
Dominican Republic 2014 M 0.015 d 3.9 d 38.9 d 404 d 418 d 0.006 d 0.5 d 5.2 d 29.1 d 35.8 d 35.0 d 30.5 1.6
Ecuador 2013/2014 N 0.018 g 4.5 g 40.0 g 714 g 746 g 0.007 g 0.8 g 7.5 g 40.8 g 23.4 g 35.8 g 23.2 3.2
Egypt 2014 D 0.019 l 5.2 l 37.6 l 4,742 l 5,038 l 0.004 l 0.6 l 6.1 l 39.8 l 53.2 l 7.0 l 27.8 1.3
El Salvador 2014 M 0.032 7.9 41.3 494 501 0.009 1.7 9.9 15.5 43.4 41.1 29.2 1.9
Eswatini (Kingdom of) 2014 M 0.081 19.2 42.3 249 263 0.009 4.4 20.9 29.3 17.9 52.8 63.0 42.0
Ethiopia 2016 D 0.489 83.5 58.5 85,511 87,643 0.024 61.5 8.9 19.7 29.4 50.8 23.5 27.3
Gabon 2012 D 0.066 14.8 44.3 261 301 0.013 4.7 17.5 31.0 22.2 46.8 33.4 3.4
Gambia 2013 D 0.286 55.2 51.7 1,027 1,160 0.018 32.0 21.8 28.2 34.4 37.5 48.6 10.1
Ghana 2014 D 0.138 30.1 45.8 8,109 8,671 0.016 10.4 22.0 22.3 30.4 47.2 23.4 13.3
Guatemala 2014/2015 D 0.134 28.9 46.2 4,694 4,885 0.013 11.2 21.1 26.3 35.0 38.7 59.3 8.7
Guinea 2016 M 0.336 61.9 54.3 7,668 7,867 0.022 37.7 17.2 18.7 38.7 42.6 55.2 35.3
Guinea-Bissau 2014 M 0.372 67.3 55.3 1,161 1,253 0.025 40.4 19.2 21.3 33.9 44.7 69.3 67.1
Guyana 2014 M 0.014 3.4 41.8 26 26 0.008 0.7 5.8 31.5 18.7 49.8
Haiti 2016/2017 D 0.200 41.3 48.4 4,532 4,532 0.019 18.5 21.8 18.5 24.6 57.0 58.5 25.0
Honduras 2011/2012 D 0.090 m 19.3 m 46.4 m 1,642 m 1,788 m 0.013 m 6.5 m 22.3 m 18.5 m 33.0 m 48.5 m 61.9 17.2
India 2015/2016 D 0.123 27.9 43.9 369,546 373,735 0.014 8.8 19.3 31.9 23.4 44.8 21.9 21.2
Indonesia 2012 D 0.028 d 7.0 d 40.3 d 17,452 d 18,512 d 0.009 d 1.2 d 9.1 d 23.2 d 30.0 d 46.8 d 10.6 5.7
Iraq 2018 M 0.033 8.6 37.9 3,397 3,305 0.005 1.3 5.2 33.1 60.9 6.0 18.9 2.5
Jamaica 2014 N 0.018 f 4.7 f 38.7 f 134 f 135 f .. e,f 0.8 f 6.4 f 42.1 f 17.5 f 40.4 f 19.9
Jordan 2017/2018 D 0.002 0.4 35.4 43 42 .. e 0.0 0.7 37.5 53.5 9.0 14.4 0.1
Kazakhstan 2015 M 0.002 g 0.5 g 35.6 g 80 g 82 g .. e,g 0.0 g 1.8 g 90.4 g 3.1 g 6.4 g 2.5 0.0
Kenya 2014 D 0.178 38.7 46.0 17,801 19,223 0.014 13.3 34.9 24.9 14.6 60.5 36.1 36.8
Kyrgyzstan 2014 M 0.008 2.3 36.3 132 138 0.002 0.0 8.3 52.8 13.0 34.3 25.6 1.5
Lao People's Democratic Republic 2017 M 0.108 23.1 47.0 1,582 1,582 0.016 9.6 21.2 21.5 39.7 38.8 23.4 22.7
Lesotho 2014 D 0.146 33.6 43.4 720 750 0.010 8.5 24.4 20.6 21.5 57.9 57.1 59.7
Liberia 2013 D 0.320 62.9 50.8 2,698 2,978 0.019 32.1 21.4 19.7 28.2 52.1 50.9 40.9
Libya 2014 P 0.007 2.0 37.1 124 127 0.003 0.1 11.3 39.0 48.6 12.4
Madagascar 2008/2009 D 0.453 77.8 58.2 15,995 19,885 0.023 57.1 11.8 17.5 31.8 50.7 70.7 77.6
Malawi 2015/2016 D 0.243 52.6 46.2 9,520 9,799 0.013 18.5 28.5 20.7 23.1 56.2 51.5 70.3
Maldives 2016/2017 D 0.003 0.8 34.4 3 3 .. e 0.0 4.8 80.7 15.1 4.2 8.2 7.3
Mali 2015 M 0.457 78.1 58.5 13,640 14,479 0.024 56.6 10.9 22.0 41.6 36.3 41.1 49.7
Mauritania 2015 M 0.261 50.6 51.5 2,115 2,235 0.019 26.3 18.6 20.2 33.1 46.6 31.0 6.0
Mexico 2016 N n 0.025 f 6.3 f 39.2 f 8,039 f 8,141 f 0.008 f 1.0 f 4.7 f 67.0 f 14.1 f 18.8 f 43.6 2.5
Moldova (Republic of) 2012 M 0.004 0.9 37.4 38 38 .. e 0.1 3.7 9.2 42.4 48.4 9.6 0.1
Mongolia 2013 M 0.042 10.2 41.7 292 313 0.007 1.6 19.2 24.0 20.9 55.1 21.6 0.6
Montenegro 2013 M 0.002 g 0.4 g 45.7 g 2 g 2 g .. e,g 0.1 g 4.3 g 24.4 g 46.0 g 29.7 g 24.0 0.0
Morocco 2011 P 0.085 g 18.6 g 45.7 g 6,101 g 6,636 g 0.017 g 6.5 g 13.2 g 25.6 g 42.1 g 32.3 g 4.8 1.0
Mozambique 2011 D 0.411 72.5 56.7 18,069 21,496 0.023 49.1 13.6 17.2 32.5 50.3 46.1 62.4
Myanmar 2015/2016 D 0.176 38.3 45.9 20,263 20,449 0.015 13.8 21.9 18.5 32.3 49.2 32.1 6.2
Namibia 2013 D 0.171 38.0 45.1 880 963 0.012 12.2 20.3 30.3 14.9 54.9 17.4 13.4
Nepal 2016 D 0.148 34.0 43.6 9,851 9,961 0.012 11.6 22.3 31.5 27.2 41.3 25.2 15.0
Nicaragua 2011/2012 D 0.074 16.3 45.2 956 1,011 0.013 5.5 13.2 11.1 36.5 52.4 24.9 3.2
Niger 2012 D 0.590 90.5 65.2 16,042 19,431 0.026 74.8 5.1 20.3 37.3 42.4 44.5 44.5
Nigeria 2016/2017 M 0.291 51.4 56.6 98,175 98,175 0.029 32.3 16.8 27.0 32.2 40.8 46.0 53.5
North Macedonia 2011 M 0.010 f 2.5 f 37.7 f 52 f 53 f 0.007 f 0.2 f 2.9 f 62.5 f 17.0 f 20.5 f 22.2 5.2
Pakistan 2017/2018 D 0.198 38.3 51.7 76,976 75,520 0.023 21.5 12.9 27.6 41.3 31.1 24.3 3.9
Palestine, State of 2014 M 0.004 1.0 37.5 43 47 0.003 0.1 5.4 53.3 32.8 13.9 29.2 1.0
Paraguay 2016 M 0.019 4.5 41.9 303 307 0.013 1.0 7.2 14.3 38.9 46.8 26.4 1.2
Peru 2012 D 0.053 12.7 41.6 3,818 4,072 0.009 2.9 12.5 20.3 23.7 56.0 21.7 3.4
Philippines 2017 D 0.024 d 5.8 d 41.8 d 6,081 d 6,081 d 0.010 d 1.3 d 7.3 d 20.3 d 31.0 d 48.7 d 21.6 7.8
Rwanda 2014/2015 D 0.259 54.4 47.5 6,329 6,644 0.013 22.2 25.7 13.6 30.5 55.9 38.2 55.5
Saint Lucia 2012 M 0.007 f 1.9 f 37.5 f 3 f 3 f .. e,f 0.0 f 1.6 f 69.5 f 7.5 f 23.0 f 25.0 4.7
Sao Tome and Principe 2014 M 0.092 22.1 41.7 42 45 0.008 4.4 19.4 18.6 37.4 44.0 66.2 32.3
Senegal 2017 D 0.288 53.2 54.2 8,428 8,428 0.021 32.8 16.4 22.1 44.9 33.0 46.7 38.0
Serbia 2014 M 0.001 g 0.3 g 42.5 g 30 g 30 g .. e,g 0.1 g 3.4 g 20.6 g 42.7 g 36.8 g 25.7 0.1
Sierra Leone 2017 M 0.297 57.9 51.2 4,378 4,378 0.020 30.4 19.6 18.6 28.9 52.4 52.9 52.2
South Africa 2016 D 0.025 6.3 39.8 3,505 3,549 0.005 0.9 12.2 39.5 13.1 47.4 55.5 18.9
South Sudan 2010 M 0.580 91.9 63.2 9,248 11,552 0.023 74.3 6.3 14.0 39.6 46.5 82.3 42.7
Sudan 2014 M 0.279 52.3 53.4 19,748 21,210 0.023 30.9 17.7 21.1 29.2 49.8 46.5 14.9
Suriname 2010 M 0.041 f 9.4 f 43.4 f 49 f 53 f 0.018 f 2.5 f 4.5 f 45.7 f 25.5 f 28.8 f
Syrian Arab Republic 2009 P 0.029 g 7.4 g 38.9 g 1,539 g 1,350 g 0.006 g 1.2 g 7.7 g 40.7 g 49.0 g 10.2 g 35.2
Tajikistan 2017 D 0.029 7.4 39.0 664 664 0.004 0.7 20.1 47.8 26.5 25.8 31.3 4.8
Tanzania (United Republic of) 2015/2016 D 0.273 55.4 49.3 30,814 31,778 0.016 25.9 24.2 21.1 22.9 56.0 28.2 49.1
Thailand 2015/2016 M 0.003 g 0.8 g 39.1 g 541 g 542 g 0.007 g 0.1 g 7.2 g 35.0 g 47.4 g 17.6 g 8.6 0.0
Timor-Leste 2016 D 0.210 45.8 45.7 581 594 0.014 16.3 26.1 27.8 24.2 48.0 41.8 30.7
Togo 2013/2014 D 0.249 48.2 51.6 3,481 3,755 0.023 24.3 21.8 21.7 28.4 50.0 55.1 49.2
Trinidad and Tobago 2011 M 0.002 g 0.6 g 38.0 g 8 g 9 g .. e,g 0.1 g 3.7 g 45.5 g 34.0 g 20.5 g
Tunisia 2011/2012 M 0.005 1.3 39.7 144 153 0.006 0.2 3.7 25.7 50.2 24.1 15.2 0.3
Turkmenistan 2015/2016 M 0.001 0.4 36.1 23 23 .. e 0.0 2.4 88.0 4.4 7.6
Uganda 2016 D 0.269 55.1 48.8 22,857 23,614 0.017 24.1 24.9 22.4 22.5 55.1 21.4 41.7
Ukraine 2012 M 0.001 d 0.2 d 34.5 d 109 d 106 d .. d,e 0.0 d 0.4 d 59.7 d 28.8 d 11.5 d 2.4 0.1
Vanuatu 2007 M 0.174 g 38.8 g 44.9 g 85 g 107 g 0.012 g 10.2 g 32.3 g 21.4 g 22.5 g 56.2 g 12.7 13.1
Viet Nam 2013/2014 M 0.019 d 4.9 d 39.5 d 4,530 d 4,677 d 0.010 d 0.7 d 5.6 d 15.2 d 42.6 d 42.2 d 9.8 2.0
Yemen 2013 D 0.241 47.7 50.5 12,199 13,475 0.021 23.9 22.1 28.3 30.7 41.0 48.6 18.8
Zambia 2013/2014 D 0.261 53.2 49.1 8,317 9,102 0.017 24.2 22.5 23.7 22.5 53.7 54.4 57.5
Zimbabwe 2015 D 0.137 31.8 42.9 5,018 5,257 0.009 8.0 27.4 27.3 12.3 60.4 72.3 21.4
Developing countries ? 0.114 23.1 49.4 1,279,663 1,325,994 0.018 10.5 15.3 25.8 29.5 44.7 21.3 14.2
Regions
Arab States ? 0.076 15.7 48.4 48,885 52,251 0.018 6.9 9.4 26.2 35.3 38.6 25.2 4.6
East Asia and the Pacific ? 0.024 5.6 42.3 110,775 113,247 0.009 1.0 14.9 27.4 35.6 37.0 6.6 2.1
Europe and Central Asia ? 0.004 1.1 37.9 1,237 1,240 0.004 0.1 3.6 52.8 23.3 23.9 11.9 0.6
Latin America and the Caribbean ? 0.033 7.5 43.1 38,067 39,324 0.011 2.0 7.7 35.4 25.7 38.9 31.5 4.1
South Asia ? 0.142 31.0 45.6 542,492 548,048 0.016 11.3 18.8 29.2 27.9 42.9 22.9 17.5
Sub-Saharan Africa ? 0.315 57.5 54.9 538,206 571,884 0.022 35.1 17.2 22.2 29.6 48.1 43.7 44.7
Notes
a. Not all indicators were available for all countries, so caution should be used in cross-country comparisons. When an indicator is missing, weights of available indicators are adjusted to total 100 percent. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2019_technical_notes.pdf for details.
b. D indicates data from Demographic and Health Surveys, M from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, P from Pan Arab Population and Family Health Surveys and N from national surveys (see http://hdr.undp.org/en/faq-page/multidimensional-poverty-index-mpi for the list of national surveys).
c. Data refer to the most recent year available during the period specified.
d. Missing indicator on nutrition.
e. Value is not reported because it is based on a small number of multidimensionally poor people.
f. Missing indicator on child mortality.
g. Considers child deaths that occurred at any time because the survey did not collect the date of child deaths.
h. The methodology was adjusted to account for missing indicator on nutrition and incomplete indicator on child mortality (the survey did not collect the date of child deaths).
i. Based on the version of data accessed on 7 June 2016.
j. Given the information available in the data, child mortality was constructed based on deaths that occurred between surveys- that is, between 2012 and 2014. Child deaths reported by an adult man in the household were taken into account because the date of death was reported.
k. Missing indicator on housing.
l. Missing indicator on cooking fuel.
m. Missing indicator on electricity.
n. Multidimensional Poverty Index estimates are based on the 2016 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Estimates based on the 2015 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are 0.010 for Multidimensional Poverty Index value, 2.6 for multidimensional poverty headcount (%), 3,125,000 for multidimensional poverty headcount in year of survey, 3,200,000 for multidimensional poverty headcount projected to 2017, 40.2 for intensity of deprivation, 0.4 for population in severe multidimensional poverty, 6.1 for population vulnerable to multidimensional poverty, 39.9 for contribution of deprivation in health, 23.8 for contribution of deprivation in education and 36.3 for contribution of deprivation in standard of living.
Definitions
Multidimensional Poverty Index: Percentage of the population that is multidimensionally poor adjusted by the intensity of the deprivations. See Technical note 5 at http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2019_technical_ notes.pdf for details on how the Multidimensional Poverty Index is calculated.
Multidimensional poverty headcount: Population with a deprivation score of at least 33 percent. It is expressed as a share of the population in the survey year, the number of poor people in the survey year and the projected number of poor people in 2017.
Intensity of deprivation of multidimensional poverty: Average deprivation score experienced by people in multidimensional poverty.
Inequality among the poor: Variance of individual deprivation scores of poor people. It is calculated by subtracting the deprivation score of each multidimensionally poor person from the average intensity, squaring the differences and dividing the sum of the weighted squares by the number of  multidimensionally poor people.
Population in severe multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population in severe multidimensional poverty-that is, those with a deprivation score of 50 percent or more.
Population vulnerable to multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the population at risk of suffering multiple deprivations-that is, those with a deprivation score of 20?33 percent.
Contribution of deprivation in dimension to overall multidimensional poverty: Percentage of the Multidimensional Poverty Index attributed to deprivations in each dimension.
Population living below national poverty line: Percentage of the population living below the national poverty line, which is the poverty line deemed appropriate for a country by its authorities. National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.
Population living below PPP $1.90 a day: Percentage of the population living below the international poverty line of $1.90 (in purchasing power parity terms [PPP] ) a day.
Main data sources
Column 1: Refers to the year and the survey whose data were used to calculate the country's Multidimensional Poverty Index value and its components.
Columns 2-12: HDRO and OPHI calculations based on data on household deprivations in health, education, and standard of living from various household surveys listed in column 1, using the methodology described in Technical note 5 (available at http:// hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr2019_technical_ notes.pdf) and Alkire, S., U. Kanagaratnam and N. Suppa (2019). Columns 4 and 5 also use population data from the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (2017). 
Columns 13 and 14: World Bank (2019a).
Source

Human Development Indices: A statistical update 2019

Source:  United Nations Development Programme

The Human Development Report is a reliable source and an alternative perspective on critical issues for human development worldwide. Featuring the Human Development Index, every report presents agenda-setting data and analysis and calls international attention to issues and policy options that put people at the center of strategies to meet the challenges of development today - economic, social, political, and cultural.
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