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Summary statistics
Region Central Asia  
Surface area (sq km) 488100  
Population (est., 000) 5307  
Pop. density (per sq km) 10.9  
Capital city Ashgabat  
Capital city pop. (000) 735  
Currency Turkmen Manat (TMT)  
UN membership date 2 March 1992  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2013 41851  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 22148  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 14189  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2013 10.2  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 9.2  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 13.0  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2013 7986.7  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 4392.7  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 2988.6  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2013 7369.7  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 4017.1  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 2781.0  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2013 50.7  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 52.9  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 22.9  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2013 ... UN operational exchange rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 2.85 UN operational exchange rate. January 2009.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 ... UN operational exchange rate.  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2013 103  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 102  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 104  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2013 109  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 106  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 102  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2013 10.6  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 10.9  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 11.0  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2013 46.9  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 46.4  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 47.0  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2013 76.9  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 75.7  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 74.8  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2013 ...  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 ...  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 12  
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 2013 2853 2012.  
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 2010 1982  
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 2005 2584  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2013 116.9 ITU estimate.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 63.4  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 2.2 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2013 9.6 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 3.0 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 1.0 ITU estimate.  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2013 ...  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2013 ...  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 1.3  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 1.9  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.6  
Urban population (%) 2014 49.7  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2014 28.4  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2014 7.6/5.7  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2014 96.7  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 69.7/61.3  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 46.7  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 2.3  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2007-2013 48.0 2006.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 226.3/4.3  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2014 7552  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2007-2013 3.1  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2007-2013 85.4/88.0  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2007-2013 38.5  
Intentional homicide rate (per 100,000 population) 2008-2012 12.8  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2015 25.8  
Environment
Threatened species 2014 49  
Forested area (% of land area) 2012 8.8  
Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected (%) 2014 3.2  
Population using improved drinking water sources (%) 2012 71.0  
Population using improved sanitation facilities (%) 2012 99.0  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2011 62218/12.2  
Energy supply per capita (Gigajoules) 2012 207.0  
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