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Summary statistics
Region Central Asia  
Currency Turkmen Manat (TMT)  
Surface area (square kilometres) 488100  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 5173  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 10.6  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Ashgabat (683)  
United Nations membership date 2 March 1992  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 33466  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 22148  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 14101  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 8.0  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 9.2  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 13.0  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 6469.4  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 4392.7  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 2970.0  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 5965.2  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 4017.1  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 2763.6  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 51.2  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 52.9  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 22.9  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 ... UN operational exchange rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 2.85 UN operational exchange rate. January 2009.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 ... UN operational exchange rate.  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 104  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 108  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 107  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 110  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 114  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 106  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 46.7  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 46.4  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 47.0  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 76.5  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 75.7  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 74.8  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 ...  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 8 2007.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 12  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2012 ...  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2010 50502  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2005 66956  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 76.5 ITU estimate.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 63.4  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 2.2 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 7.2 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 3.0 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 1.0 ITU estimate.  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 ...  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 ...  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 1.3  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 1.9  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.6  
Urban population (%) 2013 49.4  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 28.5  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 7.4/5.6  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 96.8  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 69.7/61.3  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 46.7  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 2.3  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 61.8 2000.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 226.3/4.3  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 8311  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010 3.3/20.6  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 26.4  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 48  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 8.8  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 53011/10.5  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 4459.0  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 227 Based on WMO Climatological Normals (CLINO) for the period 1961-1990.  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 10.4/23.2 Based on WMO Climatological Normals (CLINO) for the period 1961-1990.  
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