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Summary statistics
Region Western Asia  
Currency Saudi Riyal (SAR)  
Surface area (square kilometres) 2206714  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 28288  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 12.8  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Riyadh (5451)  
United Nations membership date 24 October 1945  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 711050  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 526811  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 328461  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 5.1  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 7.4  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 7.3  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 25136.2  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 19326.6  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 13303.4  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 25524.7  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 19585.0  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 13320.9  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 22.2  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 24.5  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 19.3  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 3.75 Official rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 3.75 Official rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 3.74 Official rate.  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2012 164764  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 66751  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 90060  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2012 142 All cities.  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 130 All cities.  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 100 All cities.  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2012 132 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2010 112 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2005 100 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 108  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 105  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 100  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 108  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 105  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 100  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2012 5.6 Break in series; data not strictly comparable.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 5.6 Official estimates.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 6.1 Official estimates.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2012 24.7 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2010 20.4 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. 2009.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2005 20.3 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. 2006.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2012 4.7 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2010 4.1 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. 2009.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2005 4.0 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. 2006.  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 18.2  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 17.7  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 17.6  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 75.5  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 75.1  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 74.1  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 14276  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 10850  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 8037  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2012 ... Data for crude petroleum production include 50 per cent of the output of the Neutral Zone.  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2010 543496 Data for crude petroleum production include 50 per cent of the output of the Neutral Zone.  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2005 584410 Data for crude petroleum production include 50 per cent of the output of the Neutral Zone.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 184.7  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 187.9  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 58.9  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 54.0 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 41.0  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 12.7  
Exports (million US$) 2012 388401.1  
Imports (million US$) 2012 155593.0  
Balance (million US$) 2012 232808.1  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 Asia nes (60.5), N & C Ame nes (14.9), Europe nes (12.2) See technical notes.  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 United States (13.0), China (12.6), Germany (7.0)  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 1.9  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 2.4  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 1.0  
Urban population (%) 2013 82.7  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 29.0  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 5.4/4.5  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 135.1  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 77.5/73.8  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 11.2  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 2.7  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 23.8  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 9060.4/31.4 Data refer to foreign citizens. Includes refugees.  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 70663  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2006-2012 5.1  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2006-2012 109.0/107.1 UNESCO estimate.  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2006-2012 49.3  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010 1.8/3.5 Estimates.  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 19.9  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 115  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 <  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 464101/16.9  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 6355.0 Data for crude petroleum production include 50 per cent of the output of the Neutral Zone.  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 111 Based on monthly averages for the period 1982-2011.  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 17.7/33.3 Based on monthly averages for the period 1982-2011.  
Trade Profile
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