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Summary statistics
Region Eastern Europe  
Currency Romanian Leu (RON)  
Surface area (square kilometres) 238391  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 21755  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 91.3  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Bucharest (1937)  
United Nations membership date 14 December 1955  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 169396  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 164792  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 99173  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 0.7  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 -1.1  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 4.2  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 7786.6  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 7538.0  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 4484.8  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 7720.2  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 7445.7  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 4353.0  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 26.7  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 24.7  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 23.7  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 3.36 Principal rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 3.20 Principal rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 3.11 Principal rate.  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2012 -7487  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 -7258  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 -8504  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2012 342 Annual average is the weighted mean of monthly data.  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 313 Annual average is the weighted mean of monthly data.  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 232 Annual average is the weighted mean of monthly data.  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2012 136  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2010 123  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2005 100  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 79  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 91  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 95  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 79  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 91  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 95  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2012 7.0 Age group 15 to 74 years.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 7.3 Age group 15 to 74 years.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 7.2 Age group 15 to 74 years.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2012 28.6 European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2010 28.7 European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2005 30.3 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2012 29.0 European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2010 30.1 European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2005 32.1 The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 48.5  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 48.2  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 48.0  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 64.7  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 64.5  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 62.5  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 7937 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 7498 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 5839 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders.  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2012 ...  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2010 22602  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2005 24645  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 106.1 July.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 113.4  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 61.3  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 50.0 Age group 16 to 74 years.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 39.9 Age group 16 to 74 years.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 21.5 Age group 16 to 74 years.  
Exports (million US$) 2012 57904.3  
Imports (million US$) 2012 70259.7  
Balance (million US$) 2012 -12355.4  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 Germany (18.6), Italy (12.1), France (7.0)  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 Germany (17.4), Italy (10.9), Hungary (9.0)  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.3  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.2  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.3  
Urban population (%) 2013 52.8  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 15.1  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 23.8/18.1  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 95.0  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 77.4/70.2  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 10.5  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 1.4  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 70.3 Age group 15 to 44 years. 2004.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 198.8/0.9  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 1617 Refugee population refers to the end of 2012.  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2006-2012 4.2  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2006-2012 95.2/96.8  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2006-2012 56.0  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010 1.3/2.1  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 13.5  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 86  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 28.7  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 78681/3.7  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 1366.0  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 595 Based on WMO Climatological Normals (CLINO) for the period 1961-1990.  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 5.7/16.5 Based on WMO Climatological Normals (CLINO) for the period 1961-1990.  
Trade Profile
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