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Summary statistics
Region Eastern Asia  
Currency Yen (JPY)  
Surface area (square kilometres) 377930 Data refer to 1 October 2007.  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 127250  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 336.7  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Tokyo (37217)  
United Nations membership date 18 December 1956  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 5960180  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 5495387  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 4571867  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 2.0  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 4.7  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 1.3  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 46838.5  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 43150.9  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 36005.0  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 48324.3  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 44311.5  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 36844.5  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 21.2  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 20.0  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 22.3  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 86.55 Market rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 81.45 Market rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 117.97 Market rate.  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2012 60859  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 203916  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 165783  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2012 97  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 97  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 98 Series linked to former series.  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2012 92  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2010 94  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2005 100  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 102  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 100  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 101  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 102  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 100  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 101  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2012 4.3  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 5.1  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 4.4  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2012 ... Average of monthly estimates. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2010 25.3 Average of monthly estimates. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2005 27.9 Average of monthly estimates. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2012 ... Average of monthly estimates. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2010 3.7 Average of monthly estimates. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2005 4.4 Average of monthly estimates. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3.  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 48.1  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 49.4  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 48.4  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 70.4  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 71.6  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 73.3  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 8358 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders. Excludes nationals residing abroad.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 8611 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders. Excludes nationals residing abroad.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 6728 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders. Excludes nationals residing abroad.  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2012 ... Includes Okinawa.  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2010 37725 Includes Okinawa.  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2005 38138 Includes Okinawa.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 109.4 Includes Personal Handy-phone System and data cards.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 97.4 Includes Personal Handy-phone System and data cards. December.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 76.3 Includes Personal Handy-phone System.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 79.1 Age group 6 years and over.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 78.2 Age group 6 years and over.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 66.9 Age group 6 years and over.  
Exports (million US$) 2012 798567.6  
Imports (million US$) 2012 885843.3  
Balance (million US$) 2012 -87275.7  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 China (18.1), United States (17.8), Republic of Korea (7.7)  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 China (21.3), United States (8.8), Australia (6.4)  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.1  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.6  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -7.6  
Urban population (%) 2013 92.5  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 13.1  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 35.0/29.5  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 94.8  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 86.9/80.0  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 2.2  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 1.4  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 54.3 Age group 20 to 49 years. 2005.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 2437.2/1.9 Data refer to foreign citizens.  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 9300 UNHCR estimate.  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2006-2012 3.8  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2006-2012 102.2/102.1  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2006-2012 46.0  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 8.1  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 351  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 68.6  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 1169758/9.2  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 3177.0 Includes Okinawa.  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 1529 Based on monthly averages for the period 1981-2010.  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 12.9/20.0 Based on monthly averages for the period 1981-2010.  
Trade Profile
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