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Summary statistics
Region Caribbean  
Currency Jamaican Dollar (JMD)  
Surface area (square kilometres) 10991  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 2769  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 251.9  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Kingston (571)  
United Nations membership date 18 September 1962  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 14795  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 13231  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 11239  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 -0.5  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 -1.5  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 0.9  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 5343.1  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 4826.2  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 4190.4  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 5186.6  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 4645.8  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 3938.1  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 19.7  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 19.9  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 26.8  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 92.56 Market rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 85.60 Market rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 64.38 Market rate.  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2012 -1905  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 -934  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 -1071  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2012 319 2011.  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 296  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 166  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 104  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 97  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 96  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 104  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 97  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 96  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2012 13.9 Age group 14 years and over.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 12.4 Age group 14 years and over.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 11.3 Age group 14 years and over.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2012 15.5 Age group 14 years and over. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. Average of quarterly estimates.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2010 15.9 Age group 14 years and over. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. Average of quarterly estimates.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2005 17.7 Age group 14 years and over. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.2.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2012 18.1 Age group 14 years and over. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. Average of quarterly estimates.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2010 20.2 Age group 14 years and over. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.3. Average of quarterly estimates.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2005 18.1 Age group 14 years and over. The indices are shown in terms of ISIC Rev.2.  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 56.1  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 55.7  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 57.5  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 71.0  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 71.5  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 76.2  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 1986 Arrivals of non-resident tourists by air. Includes nationals residing abroad.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 1922 Arrivals of non-resident tourists by air. Includes nationals residing abroad.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 1479 Arrivals of non-resident tourists by air. Includes nationals residing abroad.  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2012 ...  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2010 18  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2005 17  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 96.5 Decrease due to the cancellation of subscriptions as two operators merged.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 116.1  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 73.9  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 46.5 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 27.7 Age group 14 years and over using the Internet via any device.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 12.8 ITU estimate.  
Exports (million US$) 2012 1711.8  
Imports (million US$) 2012 6580.4  
Balance (million US$) 2012 -4868.6  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 United States (48.1), Canada (7.1), Slovenia (4.2)  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 United States (35.7), Venezuela (15.4), Trinidad and Tobago (10.6)  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.5  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.5  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.2  
Urban population (%) 2013 52.2  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 27.2  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 11.7/10.8  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 97.0  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 76.0/70.9  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 20.9  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 2.3  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 69.0 2002-2003.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 34.9/1.3  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 20  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2006-2012 6.4  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2006-2012 94.4/94.2 2004.  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2006-2012 68.9  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010 10.3/95.2  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 12.7  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 289  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 31.1  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 7152/2.6  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 807.0  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 813 Based on monthly averages for the period 1951-1980.  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 22.9/31.4 Based on monthly averages for the period 1951-1980.  
Trade Profile
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