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Summary statistics
Region Northern Europe  
Currency Euro (EUR) Beginning 1 January 2011, the Estonian Kroon (EEK) was replaced by the euro (1 EUR=156466 EEK).  
Surface area (square kilometres) 45227  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 1291  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 28.5  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Tallinn (400)  
United Nations membership date 17 September 1991  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 22376  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 19045  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 13903  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 3.9  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 2.6  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 8.9  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 17335.3  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 14666.4  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 10492.2  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 16508.5  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 13850.7  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 10093.0  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 25.2  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 19.0  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 32.1  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 0.76 Market rate. Euro.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 11.71 Official rate. Estonian Kroon (EEK).  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 13.22 Official rate. Estonian Kroon (EEK).  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2012 -405  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 535  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 -1386  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2012 164  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 151  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 119  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2012 125  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2010 104  
Industrial production index (2005=100) 2005 100  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 125  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 110  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 103  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 125  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 110  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 103  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2012 10.1 Age group 15 to 74 years.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 16.9 Age group 15 to 74 years.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 7.9 Age group 15 to 74 years.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2012 31.1 Age group 15 to 74 years. European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2010 30.5 Age group 15 to 74 years. European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2005 33.8 Age group 15 to 74 years. Excludes conscripts.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2012 4.7 Age group 15 to 74 years. European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2010 4.2 Age group 15 to 74 years. European Labour Force Survey (Eurostat).  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2005 5.2 Age group 15 to 74 years. Excludes conscripts.  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 56.0  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 56.2  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 53.3  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 68.7  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 67.6  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 65.4  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 2744  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 2372  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 1917  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2012 ...  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2010 3963  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2005 3184  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 154.6 Excludes 2,720,698 prepaid cards that are used to provide Travel SIM/WorldMobile service.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 123.2 Excludes 1,890,000 prepaid cards that are used to provide Travel SIM service.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 107.4  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 79.0 Age group 16 to 74 years.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 74.1 Age group 16 to 74 years within the last 3 months.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 61.5 Age group 16 to 74 years.  
Exports (million US$) 2012 18157.5  
Imports (million US$) 2012 19750.3  
Balance (million US$) 2012 -1592.8  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 Russian Federation (17.5), Sweden (14.1), Finland (12.8)  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 Russian Federation (11.8), Finland (10.1), Germany (8.5)  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.3  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 <  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.3  
Urban population (%) 2013 69.6  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 15.8  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 29.0/18.6  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 86.5  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 79.5/68.9  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 4.2  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 1.6  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 70.3 Age group 20 to 49 years. 1994.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 210.0/16.3  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 92754  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2006-2012 5.7  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2006-2012 104.1/104.4  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2006-2012 60.9  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010 3.4/14.3  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 19.0  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 17  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 52.1  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 18324/13.7  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 3838.0  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 693 Based on monthly averages for the period 1971-2000.  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 2.1/9.1 Based on monthly averages for the period 1971-2000.  
Trade Profile
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United Nations Statistics Division
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