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Countries and areas

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Summary statistics
Region 2015 Northern Europe  
Surface area (sq km) 2014 45227  
Population (proj., 000) 2016 1309  
Pop. density (per sq km) 2016 30.9  
Capital city 2015 Tallinn  
Capital city pop. (000) 2015 391  
Currency 2015 Euro (EUR)  
UN membership date 2013 17 September 1991  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2014 26485  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 19505  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 14003  
GDP growth rate (annual %, const. 2005 prices) 2014 2.9  
GDP growth rate (annual %, const. 2005 prices) 2010 2.5  
GDP growth rate (annual %, const. 2005 prices) 2005 9.4  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2014 20122.4  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 14642.5  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 10329.6  
Economy: Agriculture (% of GVA) 2014 3.4 Excludes irrigation canals and landscaping care.  
Economy: Agriculture (% of GVA) 2010 3.2 Excludes irrigation canals and landscaping care.  
Economy: Agriculture (% of GVA) 2005 3.5 Excludes irrigation canals and landscaping care.  
Economy: Industry (% of GVA) 2014 28.1 Excludes publishing activities, includes irrigation canals.  
Economy: Industry (% of GVA) 2010 28.0 Excludes publishing activities, includes irrigation canals.  
Economy: Industry (% of GVA) 2005 29.8 Excludes publishing activities, includes irrigation canals.  
Economy: Services and other activity (% of GVA) 2014 68.5 Excludes repair of personal and household goods. Includes publishing activities and landscaping care.  
Economy: Services and other activity (% of GVA) 2010 68.8 Excludes repair of personal and household goods. Includes publishing activities and landscaping care.  
Economy: Services and other activity (% of GVA) 2005 66.7 Excludes repair of personal and household goods. Includes publishing activities and landscaping care.  
Employment: Agriculture (% of employed) 2014 3.9  
Employment: Agriculture (% of employed) 2010 4.0 Break in the time series.  
Employment: Agriculture (% of employed) 2005 5.2 Persons aged 15 to 74 years.  
Employment: Industry (% of employed) 2014 30.5  
Employment: Industry (% of employed) 2010 30.9 Break in the time series.  
Employment: Industry (% of employed) 2005 33.8 Persons aged 15 to 74 years.  
Employment: Services and other (% of employed) 2014 65.5  
Employment: Services and other (% of employed) 2010 64.9 Break in the time series.  
Employment: Services and other (% of employed) 2005 61.1 Persons aged 15 to 74 years.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2014 7.4 Estimate.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 16.7 Estimate.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 8.0 Estimate.  
Labour force participation (female/male pop. %) 2014 55.4/69.4 Estimate.  
Labour force participation (female/male pop. %) 2010 56.0/67.7 Estimate.  
Labour force participation (female/male pop. %) 2005 53.4/65.6 Estimate.  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2014 169  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 151  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 119  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2014 127 2013.  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 110  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 103  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2014 127 2013.  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 110  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 103  
Index of industrial production (2005=100) 2014 134 Excluding water and waste management.  
Index of industrial production (2005=100) 2010 104 Excluding water and waste management.  
Index of industrial production (2005=100) 2005 100 Excluding water and waste management.  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2014 259  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 344  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 -1386  
Exports (million US$) 2015 13964.8  
Imports (million US$) 2015 15717.6  
Balance (million US$) 2015 -1752.8  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2015 Sweden (17.3), Finland (14.8), Russian Federation (9.7)  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2015 Finland (9.9), Germany (9.7), Russian Federation (9.6)  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.3  
Urban population (%) 2015 67.5  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.5  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 1.6  
Life expectancy at birth (females/males, years) 2010-2015 81.1/71.6  
Total dependency ratio (Pop. aged 0-14 & 65+ per 100 pop. 15-64) 2015 54  
International migrant stock (000/% of total pop.) mid-2015 202.4/15.4  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2014 2918  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2015 86756 Almost all people recorded as being stateless have permanent residence and enjoy more rights than foreseen in the 1954 Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons.  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 3  
Health: Total expenditure (% of GDP) 2014 6.4  
Health: Physicians (per 1 000 pop.) 2013 3.2 2012.  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2014 4.7 2012.  
Education: Primary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.) 2014 100.4/101.0 2013.  
Education: Secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.) 2014 108.1/109.0 2013.  
Education: Tertiary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100 pop.) 2014 88.1/58.7 2013.  
Intentional homicide rate (per 100 000 pop.) 2014 3.1  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2016 23.8  
Environment
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2014 160.7  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2014 84.2 Population age 16-74.  
Patents: Resident filings (per million pop.) 2014 61.0  
Threatened species 2015 17  
Forested area (% of land area) 2013 52.7 Estimate.  
CO2 emission estimates (000 tons/tons per capita) 2013 19915/15.1  
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 2013 237  
Energy supply per capita (Gigajoules) 2013 195.0  
Terrestrial and marine areas protected (% of total area) 2014 19.9  
Population using improved drinking water sources (urban/rural, %) 2015 100.0/99.0  
Population using improved sanitation facilities (urban/rural, %) 2015 97.5/96.6  
Net Official Development Assistance disbursed (% of GNI) 2014 0.1  
Trade Profile
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United Nations Statistics Division
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