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Summary statistics
Region Eastern Africa  
Currency Nakfa (ERN)  
Surface area (square kilometres) 117600  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 6131  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 52.1  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Asmara (712)  
United Nations membership date 28 May 1993  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 3108  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 2117  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 1098  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 7.5  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 2.2  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 2.6  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 506.9  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 368.8  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 226.3  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 502.2  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 365.3  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 224.4  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 9.5  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 9.3  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 20.3  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 15.38 Official rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 15.38 Official rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 15.38 Official rate.  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 111  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 106  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 106  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 111  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 106  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 106  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 79.9  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 79.6  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 78.1  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 89.8  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 89.7  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 89.4  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 107 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders. Includes nationals residing abroad. 2011.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 84 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders. Includes nationals residing abroad.  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 83 Arrivals of non-resident visitors at national borders. Includes nationals residing abroad.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 5.5  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 3.5  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 0.9  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 0.8 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 0.6 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 0.4 ITU estimate. 2007.  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 ...  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 ...  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 3.2  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 5.0  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 2.3  
Urban population (%) 2013 22.2  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 43.2  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 4.4/3.1  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 99.6  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 64.9/60.2  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 41.8  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 4.7  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 8.0 2002.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 15.8/0.3 Estimates.  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 3533  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2006-2012 2.1  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2006-2012 32.2/39.1  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2006-2012 27.4  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010 6.2/29.8 Estimates.  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 22.0  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 113  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 15.1  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 513/0.1  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 30.0  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 533  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 8.9/23.2  
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United Nations Statistics Division
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