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Summary statistics
Region Northern Europe  
Surface area (sq km) 45227  
Population (est., 000) 1284  
Pop. density (per sq km) 28.5  
Capital city Tallinn  
Capital city pop. (000) 392  
Currency Euro (EUR)  
UN membership date 17 September 1991  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2013 24880  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 19491  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 14001  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2013 1.6  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 2.5  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 9.5  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2013 19328.2  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 15009.7  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 10565.8  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2013 18841.1  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 14232.9  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 10154.0  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2013 27.3  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 21.3  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 32.9  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2013 0.73 Market rate. Euro.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 11.71 Official rate. Estonian Kroon (EEK).  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 13.22 Official rate. Estonian Kroon (EEK).  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2013 -300  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 391  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 -1386  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2013 169  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 151  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 119  
Index of industrial production (2010=100) 2013 125 ISIC Rev.4 (BCD).  
Index of industrial production (2010=100) 2010 100 ISIC Rev.4 (BCD).  
Index of industrial production (2010=100) 2005 96 ISIC Rev.4 (BCD).  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2013 127  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 110  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 103  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2013 127  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 110  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 103  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2013 8.8  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 16.9  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 7.9  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2013 31.1 Population aged 15-74. 2012.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2010 30.5 Population aged 15-74.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2005 33.8 Population aged 15-74. Excluding conscripts.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2013 4.7 Population aged 15-74. 2012.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2010 4.2 Population aged 15-74.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2005 5.2 Population aged 15-74. Excluding conscripts.  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2013 56.2  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 56.2  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 53.3  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2013 68.9  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 67.6  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 65.4  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2013 2868  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 2372  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 1917  
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 2013 213 2012.  
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 2010 204  
Energy production, primary (Petajoules) 2005 163  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2013 159.7  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 127.3 Excluding 1,890,000 prepaid cards that are used to provide Travel SIM service.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 109.1  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2013 80.0  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 74.1 Population aged 16 to 74 using the Internet in the last 3 months.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 61.5  
Exports (million US$) 2013 18288.2  
Imports (million US$) 2013 20058.3  
Balance (million US$) 2013 -1770.1  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2013 Russian Federation (17.8), Sweden (14.9), Finland (14.4)  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2013 Finland (9.9), Germany (9.9), Russian Federation (9.3)  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.3  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -0.5  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.1  
Urban population (%) 2014 67.6  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2014 16.0  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2014 29.3/18.8  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2014 86.5  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 79.5/68.9  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 4.2  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 1.6  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2007-2013 63.4 Age group 18 to 49 years. 2004-2005.  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 210.0/16.3  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2014 89658 Almost all people recorded as being stateless have permanent residence.  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2007-2013 5.2  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2007-2013 102.6/102.8  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2007-2013 59.2  
Intentional homicide rate (per 100,000 population) 2008-2012 5.0  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2015 19.8  
Environment
Threatened species 2014 17  
Forested area (% of land area) 2012 51.8  
Proportion of terrestrial and marine areas protected (%) 2014 19.9  
Population using improved drinking water sources (%) 2012 99.0  
Population using improved sanitation facilities (%) 2012 95.0  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2011 18650/14.4  
Energy supply per capita (Gigajoules) 2012 181.0  
Trade Profile
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United Nations Statistics Division
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