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Summary statistics
Country note For statistical purposes, the data for China do not include Hong Kong SAR, Macao SAR or Taiwan Province of China, unless otherwise indicated.  
Region Eastern Asia  
Currency Yuan Renminbi (CNY)  
Surface area (square kilometres) 9596961  
Population in 2012 (estimated, 000) 1377065  
Population density in 2012 (per square kilometre) 143.5  
Capital city and population in 2011 (000) Beijing (15594)  
United Nations membership date 24 October 1945  
Economic indicators
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2012 8358400  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2010 5949786  
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 2005 2287238  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2012 7.7  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2010 10.4  
GDP: Growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 2005 11.3  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2012 6069.7  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2010 4375.4  
GDP per capita (current US$) 2005 1735.2  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2012 5957.5  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2010 4342.2  
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 2005 1699.9  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2012 46.1  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2010 45.6  
Gross fixed capital formation (% of GDP) 2005 39.6  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2012 6.29 Principal rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2010 6.62 Principal rate.  
Exchange rates (national currency per US$) 2005 8.07 Principal rate.  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2012 193139  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2010 237810  
Balance of payments, current account (million US$) 2005 132378  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2012 133  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2010 124  
CPI: Consumer price index (2000=100) 2005 107  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 127  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 120  
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 100  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2012 128  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2010 121  
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 2005 100  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2012 2.8 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2010 2.9 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over.  
Unemployment (% of labour force) 2005 1.9 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2012 29.5 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over. December. 2011.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2010 28.7 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over. December.  
Employment in industrial sector (% of employed) 2005 23.8 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over. December.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2012 34.8 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over. December. 2011.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2010 36.7 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over. December.  
Employment in agricultural sector (% of employed) 2005 44.8 Official estimates. Age group 16 years and over. December.  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2012 63.8  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2010 63.5  
Labour force participation, adult female pop. (%) 2005 66.5  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2012 78.1  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2010 77.6  
Labour force participation, adult male pop. (%) 2005 79.5  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2012 57725  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2010 55664  
Tourist arrivals at national borders (000) 2005 46809  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2012 ...  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2010 1980266  
Energy production, primary (000 mt oil equivalent) 2005 1439360  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2012 81.3 ITU estimate.  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2010 64.0  
Mobile-cellular subscriptions (per 100 inhabitants) 2005 30.1  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2012 42.3 ITU estimate.  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2010 34.3  
Individuals using the Internet (%) 2005 8.5  
Exports (million US$) 2012 2048782.3  
Imports (million US$) 2012 1818199.3  
Balance (million US$) 2012 230583.0  
Major trading partners (% of exports) 2012 United States (17.2), China, Hong Kong SAR (15.8), Japan (7.4)  
Major trading partners (% of imports) 2012 Japan (9.8), Republic of Korea (9.3), China (7.9) Data refer to returned goods or goods resulting from outward processing, i.e. minor processing or, in general, operations which do not change the country of origin. When these goods come back they are recorded as re-imports and the country of origin is the country itself.  
Social indicators
Population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 0.6  
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 2.9 Excludes Hong Kong SAR and Macao SAR of China.  
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 2010-2015 -2.3 Excludes Hong Kong SAR and Macao SAR of China.  
Urban population (%) 2013 53.2  
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 2013 18.0  
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 2013 14.6/13.3  
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 2013 107.6  
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 2010-2015 76.6/74.0  
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 2010-2015 13.0  
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 2010-2015 1.7  
Contraceptive prevalence (ages 15-49, %) 2006-2012 84.6  
International migrant stock (000 and % of total population) mid-2013 848.5/0.1 Excludes Hong Kong SAR and Macao SAR of China. Estimates.  
Refugees and others of concern to UNHCR mid-2013 301357 The 300,000 Vietnamese refugees are well integrated and in practice receive protection from the Government of China.  
Education: Government expenditure (% of GDP) 2006-2012 1.9 1999.  
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 2006-2012 103.7/103.4  
Education: Female third-level students (% of total) 2006-2012 50.2  
Intentional homicides (females and males, per 100 000) 2008-2010 1.0/2.2  
Seats held by women in national parliaments (%) 2014 23.4  
Environment
Threatened species 2013 958  
Forested area (% of land area) 2011 22.5  
CO2 emission estimates (000 metric tons and metric tons per capita) 2010 8280112/6.2  
Energy consumption per capita (kilograms oil equivalent) 2010 1534.0  
Precipitation in the capital city, total mean (millimetres) 578 Based on monthly averages for the period 1961-1990.  
Temperature in the capital city, mean °C (minimum and maximum) 6.5/17.7 Based on monthly averages for the period 1961-1990.  
Trade Profile
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